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Vol. XVI. * No. 1 1 




Owned and Published Monthly by the Canadian National Association of 

Trained Nurses 

Registered at Ottawa, Canada, as Second-Class MatteV 



The Nurse — A Teacher of Health in the School 649 

Lectures on The History of Nursing 653 

The Visiting Nurse as a Health Teacher 557 

Teaching Practical Nursing 659 

The Teaching of Bacteriology to Nurses 661 

International Nursing Stucjents 664 

Editorial 665 

Letters to the Editor 666 

Canadian Nurses' Association 667 

News from the Medical World 658 

Public Health Nursing Department 670 

Department of Nursing Education 673 

The World's Pulse 675 

Canadian Army Medical Nursing Service Department 677 

The Nurses' Library 682 

Hospitals and Nurses 683 

AH Communications to be addressed to the Editor and Business Manager, Vancouver Block, 
Vancouver, B. C. 

Subscription, 92.00 a Year Single Copy, 20 cent» 

no nor ^^^^^ ^^ second-class matter March 19, 1905, at the Post OfRce at Buffalo. X. Y., under the 

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n Monthly Journal for the Nursing Profession In Canada 

Editor and Business Manager MISS HELEN RANDAL. R.N. 

Vol. XVI. Vancolvhr, B.C., N'ove.mbf.r, 1920 No. 11 

Officers of the National Association of Trained 
Nurses, 1920-1921 

President MISS E. MacP. DICKSON 

Toronto Free Hospital, Weston, Ont. 

First Vice-President MISS JEAN BROWNE, R.N. 

Regina, Sask. 

Second Vice-President MISS E. JOHNS, R.N. 

Vancouver, B. C. 

Treasurer MISS K. DAVIDSON, R.N. 

131 Crescent Street, Montreal, Que. 


The .Mexandra Hospital, Edmonton, .Alta. 
COUNCILLORS— For Alberta: Miss L. Edy, R.N., Calgary; Miss V. Winslow, R.N., Medi- 
cine Hat. For British Columbia: Miss H. Randal, R.N., Vancouver; Miss J. F. Mac- 
Kenzie, R.N., Victoria. For Manitoba: Miss • Inga Johnson, R.N., Winnipeg; Miss M. 
Martin, R.N., Winnipeg. For New Brunswick: Miss Branscombe, R.N., St. Stephen; 
Miss Retallick, R.N., St. John. For Nova Scotia: Miss Reed, Miss Graham. For Quebec: 
Miss S. C. Young, R.N., Montreal; Miss Mabel Hersey, R.N., Montreal. For Ontario: 
Miss F. J. Potts, Toronto; Miss K. Mathieson, Toronto. For Saskatchewan: Miss Jean 
Wilson, R.X., Moose Jaw ; Miss Jean Urquhart, R.X., Regina. 

The Nurse — A Teacher of Health in the 


By Elizabeth G. Breeze, R.X. 
Read at the C.N.A.T.X. Convention. July, 1920 

To speak of the school nurse as a teacher in the public school is 
possibly to present her to many people in a new character, and also 
to throw new light on her work. There are still many people, even in 
cities where school nursing is a well-established part of the school 
system, and people rather closely connected with educational matters, 
too, who still fail to recognize in the school nurse a teacher of the first 
importance. This is due not to inadequacy on the part of the nurse, 
but rather to routine-bound thought on the part of the people. To them 
a nurse is a nurse, and a teacher a teacher, and the nurse in the com- 
bined role has been given very little serious consideration. 

There has been a long road travelled, and a great deal of hard 
pioneer work done, since the appointment of the first school nurse ; and 
to-day we talk of the nurse as a teacher of health in schools. When 
the nurse first appeared in our schools her function was thought to be 
mainly the detection of infectious disease ; and. though this, of course, 
still receives attention, we are striving to change the generally accepted 


assumption, that the nurse's presence in the school means disease of 
some kind, to the real true idea that a school nurse means "health." 

We have been told many times that health, like happiness, is largely 
a habit, and can be cultivated and taught. To the school nurse, there- 
fore, is given a wonderful opportunity of inculcating health habits dur- 
ing the most receptive and habit-forming period. 

Health, though under many different names, is really taught and 
is a part of many of our school activities, though perhaps not so 
thought of by some. Our sports, for instance, are teaching health 
— physical drill and exercises ; the domestic science, with its teaching 
of food values, proper cooking and balanced menus : nature stud}', etc., 
all should be considered as part of the health programme. These de- 
partments are, of course, handled by specialists, some taught entirely by 
experts, others by the grade teachers under the specialists' supervision; 
but health, or hygiene, as usually appears on the curriculum, is gener- 
ally taught by a grade teacher, without any special supervision or 
without any special preparation. 

The teaching of health and the time allotted for it in the curriculum 
varies according to the various school systems, as does also the part 
taken in the teaching by the school nurse ; but the value of the nurse in 
this line of work is now being more widely recognized. Happily, the 
day has gone by when the successful recitation of the bones of the body, 
the process of digestion, etc., were considered the teaching of health, 
and a more rational method is now being followed. 

We now feel that the end to be gained in teaching health is not 
information, but action ; not simply knowledge of what is desirable, but 
habitual practice of the rules of health. 

In the majority of our schools at the present time the didactic 
teaching of health, as laid down in the school curriculum, is done by 
the teacher, leaving it to the nurse to place the emphasis on the applica- 
tion to daily use. I think it a distinct advantage to the school nurse 
that it is so arranged ; all day, every day. the children have their own 
class teacher. The nurse, being an occasional visitor, about whom there 
is more or less glamor and charm, brings to the room a fresh person- 
ality and the additional charm of the unknown quantity. ''Will the 
nurse talk to us to-day?" and ''What about?" instantly flashes into the 
children's minds, and she has their interest at once. This given her, 
the rest depends on the nurse. Her talks should be well prepared and 
arranged to suit the ages, characteristics and environment of the pupils 
to whom they are to be given. 

In the lower grades the time should be devoted wholly to the 
formation of health habits ; with the older children, whose knowledge 
is extending, the reasons for these habits may be elaborated and re- 
inforced by more scientific knowledge. Interest and, if possible, par- 
ticipation in the various health activities of the community should be 
aroused and stimulated in the higher trrades. 


To successfully teach health to children, a well-thought-out graded 
plan must be arranged and carefully followed out; but not so carefully, 
nor the plan so set and iron-bound, that deviation cannot occur. The 
good teacher watches her opportunities, and often makes fast her teach- 
ing at unexpected moments. Where school nurses are supplementing, 
by monthly or bi-monthly talks, the regular health lessons of the teacher, 
it is usually wise to arrange the talks with reference to the subject being 
taken up by the teachers during the month. The talks given by the 
nurse should be informal, but impressive ; she should endeavor to teach 
the children to think in terms of health and happiness, rather than 

As to methods of teaching health, they do not come into the scope 
of this paper, but have come into a new era in our teaching. We are 
using new methods and new ways of applying old methods. Posters, 
calendars, health stories, demonstrations, competitions, contests, health 
plays, games, songs, etc., all are now used in carrying out the health 

The school nurse should be the leader of health activities in her 
school, and the instigator, if necessary, of the teaching of health in a 
really helpful way. Very few school nurses have time to spend in 
teaching the routine class work in health required ; and it is generally 
felt that they are more effective in the supplementary talks, special 
health talks, nutrition classes, health leagues, little mothers' leagues, 
home nursing classes, etc., and in planning health activities and inter- 
esting teachers in health. That is far more important and more valu- 
able and conducive of greater results than the time spent in going from 
room to room teaching routine lessons. A teacher who is interested in 
teaching health, and in the health of her pupils, is the greatest help 
possible to the nurse in teaching and establishing health habits, and also 
in impressing the lessons taught by the nurse. Many opportunities for 
emphasizing the health lessons arise during the teaching of other studies, 
and the co-operation of the teacher is invaluable. Not many children 
are interested in health as health, but most are interested in being 
strong and athletic ; and the wise teacher, knowing this, will use every 
means to inspire and help them to do the things that will lead to phys- 
ical health and well-being. 

Co-operation with all other agencies or factors which enter in any 
way into the school health problem, or should enter into, should be 
arranged and enlisted. This lack of co-ordination has resulted in much 
loss of both time and energy in the past. Parents, physicians, teachers, 
health authorities, parent-teacher associations, men's and women's clubs, 
the press, and other organizations of various kinds, all can be useful in 
the teaching of health by the school nurse. To be a successful teacher 
of health, the nurse must realize that her teaching is not confined to 
four walls of a classroom. 


To come back to our subject, "The Xurse — A Teacher of Health 
in the School." Is she a teacher? That depends on the nurse, her edu- 
cation, and her conception of her work. Is she teaching- health? Some 
are. and some are not. Some school nurses are routine inspectors only, 
and are losing- a wonderful opportunity. Who is the nurse teaching- in 
the school? Pupils only? We hope not. ]\Iost teachers are eager to 
learn more of health and health w^ork ; and here the nurse can do a 
great deal of teaching, for most teachers realize that this is a subject 
which they have been most inadequately prepared to teach. The parent- 
teachers' associations are a part of the school, and here, also, is an op- 
portunity to teach, and beyond the schools are the homes of the child- 
ren. It has often been said that the school nurse is the connecting link 
between the home and the school; and we now feel that the school nurse 
is the health teacher of the children, school teachers and parents. 

Have I conveyed to you that I feel that a school nurse should be 
a teacher in the newer, better way. leaving behind her the set grind 
and the stiff formal methods? She should be a teacher of health and 
happiness, and her presence in the school should bring with it that 

Now a word about nurses for school work and health teaching — 
herein lies the difficulty. School nurses must, of course, be graduate 
nurses, and, in countries where such laws obtain, registered nurses ; but 
we must go farther. The school nurse needs a very considerable amount 
of special training not at present provided in any of our training 
schools. She should have special training in public health, social and 
economic subjects, and in teaching principles and methods. Nurses 
themselves, after entering this work, are painfully aware of this insuffi- 
cient-preparation for this important work, which is so rapidly assuming 
such large proportions and is really becoming a national service, and 
they are endeavoring ^o supplement their hard-won experience by tak- 
ing some of the various courses now open to school nurses. To meet 
this ever-growing demand for further education, many of our univer- 
sities are establishing public health courses covering various fields of 
public health work, and extending over various periods of time, and an 
increasing number of nurses are availing themselves of this opportunity 
for increasing their usefulness. 

First Lesson ix Art 

.\ teacher in one of the Boston schools had shown the lower-grade 
pupils in her room a beautiful picture of the "Madonna and Child," and 
had asked them to write something about it. One boy of a dozen years 
handed the teacher the following brief and terse account of the picture- 

"I think Mrs. McDonough's baby is just fine." 

— Harper's Monthly. 


Lectures on The History of Nursing 


By Maude E. Seymour Abbott, B.A., M.D., 
Curator of the Medical Museum, McGill University 

(Continued from Last Month) 


The Dark Period of Nursing, and the Rise of Prison and Hospltal 

Reform ; the Deaconess Movement and Dawn of Modern Nursing. 

(Period Covered, 17th to Early 19th Centhries.) 

Authorities Consulted: Life of Sister Dora, Margaret Lonsdale; 
Life of Elizabeth Fry, Mrs. E. R. Pitman; History of British Nursing, 
Sarah Tooley, Chap. IL; Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix, by Francis 


The Dark Period of Nursing and the Rise of Hospital and 
Prison Reform 

Remarks : From the latter part of the 17th to the latter part of the 
18th centuries, the art of nursing, status of nurse, and welfare of the 
patients, were all sunk to the lowest ebb; nurses were of the servant class, 
ill paid and under fed, doing twelve to fourteen continuous hours' work 
without relief, and frequently intemperate (Sairey Gamp type). Rem- 
nants of these conditions still persist in some Continental hospitals to-day, 
notably Rome and Vienna. Cause of this degradation lay chiefly in the 
fact that the status of woman herself, except in individual cases, had sunk 
very low, and the entire regulation of these institutions was taken out 
of the hands of women, who are better organizers of a nursing system 
and best fitted to rule each other, and were subordinated to men. 

The first ray of light during this dark period came in the investiga- 
tions of John Hozvard, the philanthropist, who travelled 60,000 miles, at 
a personal expense of i30,000, inspecting and reporting upon jails and 
hospitals, which teemed with numerous abuses, and revealed these to the 
public through his published statements. In the latter part of the 18th 
century a great revival of human thought, aspiration and enthusiasm set 
in, which expressed itself most forcibly in the French Revolution, and 
was visible in the great revival of nursing institutions and especially in 
the revival of the deaconess movement of the Early Church. Hannah 
Move's first milestones in the emancipation of women from the ignorance 
and futility of the early 18th century, and Howard's researches, bore fruit, 
especially in the lives of Amalie Sieveking (born 1794) and Elisabeth 


Fry, with the efforts of both of whom the earhest movements of nursing 
reform are closely bound up. 

Slide 123 — ^John Howard (1726-1790): Prison reformer and, incidentally, the 
unveiler of hospital abuses as well. Published in 1777 a large volume, of. 
520 pages, entitled "The State of the Prisons in England and Wales and 
an Account of Some Foreign Prisons," describing result of his investiga- 
tions. In 1785, after he had made public the further results of his ex- 
haustive study of prison conditions in Europe in a third edition of this 
book, he devoted himself to the plague, and for this purpose visited nu- 
merous plague lazarettos, and himself became a voluntary inmate of one 
in order to determine the nature and extent of the quarantine; his work 
was thus the direct antecedent of that of Florence Nightingale, as well as 
of Elizabeth Fry. 

Slide 124 — Dress of physician when visiting a case of contagious disease in the 
17th century. 

Slide 125 — Alme. Xeckar. who built a small model hospital in Paris in 1779, 
and published a book describing it and all the misery and bad hygiene 
that existed in other institutions of the same kind in the city at the time, 
and thus introduced signal reforms. 

Slide 126 — Three of the greatest London hospitals (St. Bartholomew, Guy's 
and St. Thomas), in the latter part of the 18th centurj', when hospital 
reform was just beginning to dawn. 

Slide 127 — Elizabeth Gurney Fry (1780-1845): Quakeress, prison and hospital 
and social reformer, "minister" and preacher. A member of a large, 
vivacious and talented family circle, and an affectionate wife and mother. 
Exerted enormous humanitarian influence over the early part of the 19th 
century; reformed Newgate Prison; organized prison and convict work; 
clothed and fed and introduced better housing conditions among the 
prisoners, both in Europe, where she travelled thousands of miles, and in 
distant lands. In spite of the retiring nature of her Quaker life, she met 
with great public recognition, especially from the Royalty of England, 
Denmark, Prussia, etc. 

Slide 128 — Elizabeth Fry visiting prisoners in Newgate Prison. Note Quaker 
head-dress and sweet expression. Note also various wealthy fashionable 
co-workers and one of the clergy. 

Slide 129— Sister Dora (1832-1878): Belonged to Church of England Order of 
Good Samaritan. Was the college hospital nurse at Walsall, Birmingham, 
and the vicinity for many years. Did heroic work in smallpox epidemics, 
etc., in crowded districts. Was a leading figure among social workers of 
middle 19th century. 

Slide 130— Dorothy Lynde Dix (1822-1887): Born in Maine, U.S.A. Revolution- 
ized the care of the insane in the United States and Canada, and influenced 
Legislature to introduce State hospitals for the insane throughout these 
countries. Impetus to social work came to her from Mr. Rathbone, father 
of workhouse infirmary reform, in 1836, and she began teaching in State 
prisons in 1840. Memorialized the Massachusetts Legislature about apal- 
ling abuses existing in the care of the insane about 1842, with immediate 
results in the extension of State care. Appealed during the next twenty 
years in the same way to every State in the Union. Was made a Super- 
intendent of War Nursing at the age of sixteen. 



The Deaconess Movement and the Dawn of Modern Nursing. 

Pastor Fliedner and His Wife, Frederika, and the Kaiserwerth 

Deaconesses Institute. 

Remarks: The work at Kaiserwerth of Pastor FHedner and his 
wife in the early 19th century revived the Deaconess Order of the Early 
Church and developed a widespread system of modern Deaconesses In- 
stitutions from very small beginning's. It is of great interest as forming 
the direct link which carried the inspiration springing from the life of 
Elizabeth Fry and her predecessors in Hospital and prison reform to its 
flower and fruit in the life and work of Florence Nightingale. It was at 
Kaiserwerth that Florence Nightingale was trained, and it was there that 
the sense of the art of nursing as a vocation began to take form and to 
find expression before and in her time. 

Pastor Fliedner was a remarkable man, of wide philanthropic bent 
and a broad grasp of the vital principles embodied in the Christian ideals 
of personal sacrifice as the motive power for salvation from sin and suf- 
fering through regenerating love, and he was possessed of a remarkable 
organizing faculty, to be compared, with his entire character and work, 
to that of St. Vincent de Paul. He perceived at the outset of his min- 
istry, tha immense value to purposes of social service of orders of re- 
ligious women bound by no permanent vows but by a sense of vocation, 
such as were to be found in the Institution of Deaconesses of the Early 
Church, the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, and the Béguines 
of Flanders. His first wife Frederika equalled or even surpassed him in 
the remarkable combination of faculties which made her at once organizer 
and administrator, house-mother, disciplinarian, and kind friend of 
sufferer and minister alike. She was born at Braunsfeldt, a piace identi- 
fied in history with the work and life of Elizabeth of Hungary, and was 
trained to rescue work before her marriage, and to her activities were 
undoubtedly due much of the initiative and the success of the Kaiser- 
werth organization. The two began work together in their little parish 
at Kaiserwerth in 1822; soon after, fire destroyed the factory in it, and 
Pastor Fliedner set out on foot to raise money for his starving flock in 
Holland, England and elsewhere; in London he met Elizabeth Fry and 
saw her work at the Newgate Prison. Returning, he, with his wife, be- 
gan operations in their own small garden house with a single discharged 
prisoner, and gradually expanded it to include the care of the sick, 
orphans and the aged ; the work soon developed to a point of immense 
usefulness, the final outcome being the establishment of homes for the 
training of Deaconesses in almost every part of the civilized world. 

Slide 131 — Pastor Fliedner, who founded the Rhenish-Westphalian Prison 
iVssociation in 1826 and organized the great Deaconesses' Institution of 
Kaiserwerth on the Rhine, with its numerous branches throughout the 
civilized world. Pastor and instructor of Florence Nightingale (1851). 
Died October, 1864. 


Slide 132— Frederika, first wife of Pastor Fliedner, mother of the revived 
apostolic Order of Deaconesses, and the immediate initiator of the art 
of modern nursing. Born 1800 A.D. Died April 22, 1842. 

Slide 133— The small summer house in Pastor Fliedner's garden, which was 
the origin of the Kaiserwerth Institution. Work was begun here with a 
single discharged prisoner, Minna, who is seen descending from her sleep- 
ing apartment upstairs by the only available means. The figure holding 
the ladder is undoubtedly Fraulein Gobel, Frederika's first assistant. 

Slide 134 — The interior of the summer house, showing Frederika receiving two 
probationers, who enter the door with bowed heads, this being an attitude 
expressing the humility enjoined upon the true Deaconess. The scope of 
the work had now been enlarged to include the care of orphans. 

Slide 135 — A portion of the Kaiserwerth buildings, erected during Florence 
Nightingale's time, in which the Deaconesses were housed. The second 
storey window farthest to the left is said to have been the room which she 
occupied during her stay at Kaiserwerth. 

Slide 136 — A portion of the Kaiserwerth buildings as they are to-day, showing 
the immense tree that has developed from a small seed. 

Slide 137 — Portion of the hospital buildings at Kaiserwerth. Xote the costume 
of the Deaconess nurses, which is the same as that adopted by Miss 
Nightingale for her nurses in the Crimea. 

Slide 138 — The garden house as it is to-day. It has beeil» converted into a 
museum, and Pastor Fliedner's bust is seen in the window. 

Slide 139 — Sister Julie Bonin, a Kaiserwerth Deaconess, who was capped by 
Florence Nightingale on a visit to Kaiserwerth after her return from the 
Crimea, and who was alive at the time of the International Congress of 
Nurses at Kaiserwerth in 1912. 

(To Be Continued) 

'TwAs But' 

'Twas but a word in sorrow's hour, 

I murmured low ; 
Twas nothing but a wayside flower 

To one in woe : 
How little did it seem to me — 

That flower wild ; 
Yet on the word and on the flower 

The great God smiled. 

'Twas but a hand press and a tear 

Where life was sad; 
Only a smile of joy and cheer 

Where all was glad ; 

As from a child ; 
Such tiny deeds they seem to me. • 
Yet on the hand press, on the tear, 

The great God smiled. 


The Visiting Nurse As A Health Teacher 

By M. Rodger 

Manitoba Provincial Board of Health 

Read at the C.X.A.T.X. Convention, July, 1920 

I have been asked to give a paper on the visiting nurse as a health 
teacher. The visiting nurse, in my estimation, is certainly a health 
teacher. She has wonderful opportunities in teaching the simple health 

Upon being called to explain little Johnny's defects, she finds a 
child suffering, with no ventilation, smothered in blankets, perspiring 
profusely, never been washed, hair in dreadful condition. The nurse 
immediately sets to work to show the mother just how to care for the 
child. First of all. sponges it; shows the mother how to keep mouth 
clean ; explains, re ventilation, that fresh air is admitted by windows, 
and, although the bedroom door is open, it is possibly only admitting 
the used air from the other parts of the house and not the fresh air 
which is necessary for the child ; the need of abundance of fresh air 
without causing a draught; the use of newspapers in the sick-room. The 
result is, the child is more comfortable. Mother realizes what it means 
to have fresh air and cleanliness. It is a lesson she never forgets. 
Should another such occasion arise, she is ready and knows what to do. 

Take the case of a woman with a poisoned hand. Th^ nurse is 
called by the doctor to show^ the woman how to apply fomentations. On 
arrival at the house, she finds the woman's hand filthy. First thing is 
to clean it up, at the same time explaining r^ infection and the need to 
keep wovmds clean. Soak in hot water containing an antiseptic, then 
apply fomentation, showing the woman what to do. The result is the 
hand gets well, the woman realizes what it means to look after a wound 
right at once, to keep it clean, use of antiseptics, heat, etc. Someone else 
has a similar hand : no doctor near, applies to Mrs. So and So, whom 
the visiting nurse fixed up. 

Then, in the case of the baby, so often one calls and finds the baby 
dirty, sucking empty bottle or comforter. ^Mother in a dilemma to know 
just the proper feeding for her baby when she weans it. Is it not 
teaching the laws of health to explain to mother about the feeding of 
a child nine or ten months old — explaining the digestion of a child that 

Then, again, in communicable diseases, the nurse can explain the 
danger of exposing a child to, for e.g., whooping-cough, measles, etc. 
So many people still think a child must have those diseases and don't 
realize that the infection is so often at the beginning as well as the end 
of the disease. The visiting nurse can teach the mother so much by 


explaining to her the care that is necessary and the precautions which 
should be taken to prevent the spread of any communicable disease. 

For example, take a mild case of measles : The children are all 
allowed to play together ; because it is a mild case, it is thought to be 
quite safe, whereas the child should be isolated just as if it was a severe 
type. The explaining of this to a mother means a great deal. Then 
the care of the attendant : Quite frequently you will find the mother 
attending the "sick person and, without taking any precautions, lift up 
another child or perhaps start fixing the dinner. Some of those things 
seem incredible, but often it is done through want of thought, and here 
the visiting nurse has a great opportunity of teaching the parent the 
correct thing to do to prevent the spreading of communicable diseases, 
and so being a health teacher. 

Where the visiting nurse comes in greatly as a health teacher is .'n 
rural districts where the home is practically isolated and the mother has 
little communication with the outside. Here the nurse can do so much 
in teaching the mother re the care of her children, care of the teeth, 
and explaining re the permanent teeth, as so many of those mothers 
never get to public meetings and never have the opportunity of hearing 
about those things. Then, again, there is the mother who is so occupied 
at home and does not have time to take advantage of such meetings, 
and the visiting nurse is often a great advantage and the health teacher 
in such a case. 

The last part of my talk is on the persistent dirty family. Children 
come daily to school dirty ; home is dirty, mother is dirty. The visiting 
nurse calls and explains the need of sending the children to school clean ; 
perhaps helps to wash the dishes, just in a round-about way, to show 
therii how they should do, or she may sweep the floor. Personally,' I 
have had families where that has done good, but what can one do when 
nothing seems to penetrate and tell them the ordinary laws of health? 
We are always advancing with the times, and I feel sure that, as the 
years advance, it will be realized more and more that the visiting nurse 
is a teacher of health. It is hoped that many more will be stationed 
throughout the country in the near future. It is a great benefit to 
mothers to have the advice of the visiting nurse, who has a better op- 
portunity of explaining and demonstrating her work right in the home 
where she sees the real conditions under which the people live, and can 
thus give advice accordingly. 

A man's true greatness lies in the consciousness of an honest purpose 
in life, founded on a just estimate of himself and everything else, on 
frequent self-examination, and a steady obedience to the rule which he 
knows to be right — without troubling himself about what others may 
think or say, or whether they do or do not do that which he thinks and 
savs and does. — George Long. 


Teaching Practical Nursing 

By F. E. Strum M 
Read at the C.A.N.E. Convention, Fort William. July, 1920 

In regard to telling- you anything about "Teaching Practical Nurs- 
ing," it is almost a case of there being "nothing new under the sun" 
about which to speak. 

You are all aware of the difference between the old and new way 
of teaching nursing. In the old way the probationer was put at once 
in a ward to do as best she might the work of a junior nurse, picking 
up the methods of working as she went along, with more or less in- 
struction from her head nurse. 

The new method gives a course of preliminary training, placing the 
probationers in classes under instructors who teach them in the class- 
room before they enter on ward duty. 

Practical nursing is taught by demonstration, lectures and carefully 
supervised practice. In different hospitals such preliminary instruction 
is given for periods of different lengths, varying from a few weeks to 
the entire probationary period, which, in a number of schools, is six 
months. Either system has its advantages and disadvantages. 

In the old way an advantage claimed is that the pupil at once comes 
in contact with the patient, and early shows whether or not she has the 
qualifications for her work, such as patience, observation, tact, etc. ; but 
surely the fact that in this old state of things the patients were sub- 
jected to the care of entirely untrained women offsets anything that 
could be said in its favor. Besides, such teaching could not be thorough 
or uniform. 

In the new method the pupil is under an instructor chosen especial- 
ly for her ability to teach, and with the teaching of her pupils as her 
most important duty. 

The pupils are taught the best methods thoroughly, and their work 
is under close supervision. The pupils benefit, and the patient runs no 
risk of unskilful handling. An objection to this method has been sug- 
gested, and that is the possibility of the patient being so much material 
for the benefit of the nurse, which attitude is far from the ideals of our 

The most important part of the nurse's education is her thorough 
instruction in practical methods. It is what she comes to a hospital to 
learn, and something she cannot get from books or lectures. A good 
text-book is necessary, both for reference and to establish uniformity 
of methods. 

In our own school we have a demonstration room containing four 
beds, a Chase's doll and all the necessary equipment for the care of 
patients, for bed-making and giving the various treatments which come 


within the province of the nurse. In place of the doll, a convalescent 
patient is sometimes brought over -from the ward, or the nurses take 
turns in being patients, and in that way realize what it means to be 
handled as a patient as well as to handle one. 

With us an instructor has full charge of this work. In the begin- 
ning of their training the pupils are first shown how to make the 
various beds, e.g., closed, open, ether, ambulance, and the disinfection 
of beds. 

The schedule sets apart a portion of each day for the practice of 
bed-making. Beds are made in the Nurses' Home, and each morning a 
certain number of class nurses are sent to the wards, from seven until 
nine o'clock ; there they assist in making beds and in the general prepar- 
ation of the wards for the day. In this way they become more proficient, 
and, by the time their preliminary class work is completed, they are 
able to take up the daily routine of ward work much more readily. 

The Tale of the Ye.vrs 

Summer and winter and spring, 

Heat and cold and the rain^ 
This is the tale the years bring, 

Blessing and bane. 
Labor and reaping that's sweet, 

Twilight and day and the night, 
Seed and the soil and the wheat. 

Darkness and light. 

God made His earth for man, 
Home for a little span. 

Sowing and gleaning and rest. 

Sorrow and mirth and a smile, 
Glow in the east — in the west. 

Day for a while. 
Flowers to garland the earth, 

Flowers to lay o'er the dead, 
Tears and some sighs and some mirth, 

Earth for a bed. 

God gives His call to man. 
After a little span. 


Your minds are endowed with a vast number of gifts of totally 
diflferent uses — limbs of mind, as it were, which, if you don't exercise, 
you cripple. — Ri^skin. 


The Teaching of Bacteriology to Nurses 

By R. W. Tassie 
Former Instructor of Nursing-, Vancouver General Hospital 

Read at the C.A.X.E. Convention. Fort William. July, 1920 

In teaching bacteriology to junior nurses last year, in the \'ancou- 
ver General Hospital. I entered upon the work with the comforting 
thought firmly embedded in my mind that my experience in high school 
teaching would be of inestimable value in my new work. How erroneous 
this idea was I discovered later. As time progressed. I began to see 
that a course in public school methods, sometimes, it seemed to me, in 
kindergarten methods, would have been of much more use. Xo doubt 
my experience was of some aid to me in planning the lessons ; but as 
far as the presentation of them was concerned, I discovered, when ex- 
amining- note-books, that I was, to use a common expression, "talking 
above the pupils' heads." I did not find that there was a lack of atten- 
tion or interest, but that some — in fact, a majority — of the students fre- 
quently failed to grasp the most essential points ; that these were either 
omitted altogether in the notes or else were grossly distorted. Having 
been accustomed myself to taking notes from lectures, I did not under- 
stand that this was not equally easy for everyone, and, as the notes in 
my training school were dictated according to time-honored custom, 
naturally my fellow-students did not meet with this difficulty. As I 
have an insuperable objection to dictating, for it seems to me that this 
robs any subject of interest both for pupil and teacher, I did not wish 
to resort to this method in order to secure well-written, orderly notes. I 
realized later that, although the nurses had at least one year's high 
school education, yet, as a rule, they had been out of school for some 
time previous to entering the hospital, and had therefore lost the "habit" 
of studying; the ability to distinguish important factors and to discard 
those of lesser value ; so that, if I were again teaching any subject to 
nurses, I should simplify the material until, in my opinion, it could be 
assimilated by "babes and sucklings" ; then only should I feel that the 
pupil nurses might grasp the facts that I was trying to impress upon 
them. In other words, I should attempt to teach only the most im- 
portant facts, and to state these in the simplest and most concise way 

Throughout the course I endeavored to correlate the work as far as 
possible with practical nursing, physiology, and materia medica ; to pre- 
sent the material in such a way that the pupils would feel the necessity 
of applying their knowledge in their routine ward work, and should feel 
an impulse forcing them to take greater interest in personal hygiene, 
not only during their hospital life, but in their home life later on, and 
also in public sanitation; that they should understand the reasons why 


beds, tables, windowsills, should be carefully dusted with soap and 
water ; why food should be covered and placed on ice ; why ice-boxes 
should be kept scrupulously clean ; why rooms should be thoroughly 
aired and sunshine freely admitted ; why the hands must be scrubbed 
before surgical dressings, catheterizations, etc.; why we. are so careful 
in the sterilization of dressmgs ; why waterworks should be installed in 
every dwelling ; and. on the other hand, to disabuse their minds of the 
idea, too commonly held, that all germs are harmful. 

The first lesson, naturally, was devoted to a brief history of bac- 
teriology. After this introductory lecture, I made frequent use of 
lantern slides, of which I was able to obtain a goodly number, owing to 
the kindness of one of the instructors in the university. This method 
of teaching I found invaluable, as it is. of course, a psychological fact 
that we are much more impressed by what we see than by what we 
hear. The blackboard was used extensively, also ; but, as I am at best 
a very mediocre artist, I fear that my drawings were sometimes a little 
grotesque ; so that I was very thankful to have an assortment of slides 
and a good lantern, particularly when teaching morphology. When dis- 
cussing the methods used in destroying bacteria. I made it a point to 
become acquainted with the methods used in the wards and operating 
rooms and in the isolation department of the hospital, and to base my 
instructions on the work which the pupils had already done along these 
lines, or would in future do ; also to draw attention to the various means 
devised by those in charge of the hospital to prevent the growth, and 
to aid in the destruction, of harmful bacteria ; as, for example, the ster- 
ilizing apparatus in the operating department and the erection of sun- 
rooms and balconies. I was much amused, when correcting examina- 
tion papers, at the answers given by a resident of Vancouver regarding 
the relative values of disinfectants. "Sunlight," she wrote, "is our mo^t 
powerful disinfectant, but, unfortunately, it is not always to be readily 
obtained." As I was then experiencing my first Vancouver winter. I 
was forcibly impressed by the truth of this statement ! We were for- 
tunate in having a very good laboratory in the Nurses' Home, where 
several of the classes were held. Having obtained culture media of 
various kinds from the pathological laboratory, I took swabs from the 
pupils' throats, finger-nails, finger-tips, palms of the hands, lips, window- 
ledges, etc., and the results of these experiments we all watched with 
intense interest. As we had class only once a week, I made a i^ractice 
of taking the petri dishes and culture tubes to the wards, when making 
rounds, so that the pupils were able to observe closely the growth of 
colonies. Later, in the laboratory, smears were made, stained and ex- 
amined under the microscope. The pupils were immensely interested in 
this part of the work, and. I think, learned, as they would have in no 
other way, the necessity for surgical asepsis. I think, ten), that it made 
the drudgery of dusting and cleaning the wards, bathrooms and cup- 
boards a little less irksome. I was very desirous of taking small groups 


of nurses to the pathological laboratory to see the pathologists at work, 
but for some reason this plan did not seem feasible to them. They were 
all most kind, however, in saving for me interesting smears which they 
had made in connection with their work, so that I could put these under 
the microscope and let the pupils see streptococci, staphylococci, tuber- 
cular bacilli, etc. 

After some time spent in this way, the question was (as I had 
hoped) put to me by the class, "When there are so many bacteria on 
our hands, in our throats, in our food, etc., many of which are path- 
ogenic, why is it that any of us can escape disease?" This query led, 
naturally, to the discussion of immunity, and the unaflfected interest dis- 
played made it easy to impress the facts of active and passive immunity 
upon the minds of students. 

In conclusion, I shall quote, verbatim, from an answer made by one 
of the pupils to the question, "Of what value to you, in your practical 
work in the wards, was the study of cultures made during the course?" 
The following is what she wrote : "The study of cultures was very 
useful, in that swabs were taken from the throat, finger-nails, nose and 
hair of pupil nurses themselves and grown in culture media ; the results 
in every case were very good ; large colonies were formed. This prac- 
tical demonstration made much more vivid the theoretical teaching, that 
germs existed in such large numbers in these places, and provided an 
even greater inducement to cleanliness than the nurses already had. The 
fact that germs existed in such large numbers on such persons reminded 
one of what tremendous numbers there must be on those who did not 
have such inducements to cleanliness. Swabs were also taken from the 
wdndow-ledges, etc., and the results were so good that, when enthusiasm 
lagged in regard to dusting and cleaning in the wards, one thought of 
those large, fast multiplying colonies was enough to prod one on to 
further efforts." This answer — and there were many others similar to 
it — shows, I think, that the pupils grasped the idea that I had sought 
to instil, and that they would endeavor to apply the knowledge gained to 
protect from infection themselves, their patients and the public. 

The timid hand stretched forth to aid a brother in his need. 
The kindly word in grief's dark hour that proves a friend mdeed ; 
The plea for mercy softly breathed, when justice threatens high; 
The sorrows of a contrite heart — these things shall never die. 

Charles Dickens. 

They that love beyond the world cannot be separated by it. Death 
cannot kill what never dies. Nor can spirits ever be divided that love 
and live in the same divine principle, the root and record of their friend- 
ship. — William Penn. 


International Nursing Students 

An Interview with Miss Alice Fitzgerald, R.N. 

Miss Alice Fitzgerald, chief of the Division of the League of Red 
Cioss Societies, which has its headquarter-s at Geneva, has been paying 
a visit to this country, principally in connection with the establishment 
of the group of nurses from eighteen countries who are taking the 
course, extending over the academic year, which, at the instance of the 
league, has been arranged for these nurses, by the authorities of King's 
College for Women, Campden Hill. Kensington. Miss Fitzgerald is a 
graduate of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Baltimore, where she received 
her training under Miss Xutting; and her assistant. Miss Florence 
Waters, who also graduated in the same city, has gone into residence 
at King's College, in charge of the International Students, the majority 
of whom have already arrived in London. ^liss Waters came to Europe 
in the first American Red Cross ship in 1914. 

Ten scholarships have been awarded by the League, two by Red 
Cross Societies, and one by Lady Muriel Paget's Mission to Russia, the 
objects kept in view being to help those countries which have suffered 
most during the war. or which are most ,in need of assistance. The 
choice of the holders has been left in each instance to the National Red 
Cross Society in the country concerned, and Miss Fitzgerald warmly 
approves of the selections made. The essentials laid down for holders 
of the scholarships were that they must speak English fluently, must 
have a good education, and have remained at school till the age of 18 ; 
and must possess the highest nursing certificate that their country gives. 

The scholarships are held by nurses from France. Russia. Greece, 
Italy, Belgium, Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, Serbia, Roumania, Portugal, 
Switzerland, Peru, and Venezuela, and the group also includes students 
from England, Denmark. Sweden, the United States of America, and 
Canada. The nurses selected are of high standing in their own coun- 
tries. Thus Denmark has sent Miss Magdalene Tidemond, holder of 
the Florence Nightingale Medal for this year; Greece. Mile. Athena 
Messelova, Matron-in-Chief of the National Nursing Service; Switzer- 
land, Mile. Erika A. Michel, Superintendent of Nurses at the Lindenhof 
Hospital, Berne; and Canada, Miss Jean Browne, who has already had 
considerable experience in public health nursing. 

It is the hope of the League that the Red Cross Societies will de- 
velop a peace programme, and that the students, when they return to 
their own countries, will carry on educational propaganda. 

— The British Journal of Nursing. 

The blessed work of helping the world forward happily does not 
wait to be done by perfect men. — Eliot. 



The autumn is usually set apart by the various affiUated associations 
as the season when new work or renewed efforts are directed towards 
the improvement of nursing conditions and the knitting together of all 
our associations in one effort to be a real part of our National Associa- 
tion. This would seem, then, the most favorable time to bring again 
to the prominent notice of all nurses the magazine and its wants. The 
Canadian Nurse magazine does act as a bond between all associations 
throughout the Dominion, and also acts as a personal bond through 
the notes about hospitals and individual nurses. That it could be made 
more valuable, no one doubts for a minute ; and that it would be so, did 
each nurse subscribe to it, there is also no doubt, either on the part of 
the Editor or of the Executive Committee of the National Association. 

The following quotation from the current issue of the American 
Journal of Nursing, when introducing the need of increasing the sub- 
scription price of their magazine, is true of conditions in Canada as 
well : 

"This does not mean that the Journal income is falling off; but it 
does mean that all expenses of printing, publishing and mailing have 
increased during the year more rapidly than the normal growth of the 
magazine can keep pace with. . . . Our employees and our printers are 
co-operating with us, so that we may honestly say that there is no waste 
or extravagance in the management of the Journal; but, even with all 
these efforts to curtail our expenditures, we cannot maintain our posi- 
tion safely without the help of our readers." 

If this be true of the American Journal, with its large number of 
available subscribers in the United States, how much more must be our 
need of great, concerted, and never-ending work in bringing the needs 
of the Canadian Nurse, the only nursing journal in Canada, before each 
graduate, and her responsibility to it pointed out. If each graduate 
nurse in Canada subscribed, there would be a larger and better maga- 
zine, and the comfortable feeling that the finances of the magazine were 
on a sound footing. 

An urgent call has gone out to all affiliated associations by the 
President, Miss Dickson, who, in her appeal, says: 

"As President, I would remind you that the magazine is the pro- 
-, . rty of the graduate nurses of Canada. By a majority vote the asso- 
ciations undertook to publish the magazine. 

1. What have you done to help and improve the magazine? 

2. Are you a subscriber, and do you read the magazine? 


3. Are you proud of the magazine, and do you wish to retain it? 

The cost of the magazine is only two dollars a year, the cheapest 
nursing journal on this continent — less than four cents a week. If each 
nurse subscribed, at least 5,000 names would be on our list. 

£ctter8 to >9j^c ©âitor 

C. E. Z. Mission Dispensary, 

Rainawari, Sprinagar- Kashmir, 
North India. 
Dear Madam : 

You will be sorry to hear that our hospital has met with an awful 
catastrophe, it has been destroyed by fire. Unfortunately, by the up- 
setting of a full drum of kerosene oil, which ran all over the place, 
in the fright and hurry a lighted lamp was broken. War and fire are 
indeed enemies of destruction. We are now rebuilding by voluntary 
contribution, which is very difficult work indeed in these days of h'gh 
rates of labor and building materials and adverse exchange of the rupee. 
The top and middle floor wards are nearly finished. The bedsteads for 
these wards have arrived, and the blankets are on their way to us. 

No fire insurance company will take over the insurance unless the 
water supply is made perfect. The engineer of the P.W.D. came and 
looked at our water supply ; he says, although we live on the hill, t]:e 
water supply can be made good at a cost of £50. 

We have been corresponding with the State about the electric 
lighting, now that our electric station has been erected near us, for 
this part of the city. The answer came two days ago, saying His High- 
ness the Maharajah Sahieb would be pleased to give free grant of 
electric current for lighting and dispensary and hospital, but we must 
put in the electric installation at a cost of i50. This is most urgent, as, 
if we do not get it all in within six months, from April 1st, 1920, we 
forfeit the grant of free lighting. 

Do you think you can, of your charity, very kindly put an account 
of our need in your Canadian nursing paper asking if readers can send 
us from 6d. upward for the electric installation, as a birthday thank- 
ofifering? The very smallest sum will help. If you can do this, we shall 
indeed be most grateful. Any money sent will be acknowledged by 
return post and in our annual report. 

Believe me, madam, yours faithfully, 

Lady in Charge of Rainwari lîranch. 


The Canadian Nurses' Association and Register for Graduate 

Nurses, Montreal 

President — Miss Phillips. 750 St. Urbain Street. 
First \'ice-President — Miss H. M. Dunlop, 209 Stanley Street. 
Second \'ice-President — Miss J. Craig, Western Hospital. 
Secretary-Treasurer — Miss Susie Wilson, 638a Dorchester St., W. 
Registrar — Mrs. Burch. 175 Mansfield Street. 

The annual meeting of the C.X.A. was held in the club-room on 
Tuesday afternoon, October 19th. There was a large attendance. The 
election of officers for the coming year was the chief business. 

]^Iiss Maud Schneider and Miss Florence Thomson have returned 
from a pleasant trip through Canada with the Imperial Press delega- 

A Club for Blixded Soldiers 

Unique among the plans for returned war cripples is that developed 
by Toronto. Canada, for the care of her blind soldiers. The Queen City 
will shortly have the distinction of having the only blind soldiers' club in 
Canada, Named after Sir Arthur Pearson, the blind founder of St. 
Dunstan's, Pearson's Hall will be a home in every sense of the word for 
blinded soldiers who have no one to care for them — a place where they 
will not only be able to find a welcome retreat and enjoy the fine social 
atmosphere of the club, but one where they may also secure permanent 
board and lodging if they so desire. 

Seventeen rooms compose the spacious residence which at present 
houses the club. On the lower floor are the reception-room, recreation- 
room, dining-room, kitchen, and a classroom, while upstairs are twelve 
bedrooms and a workroom. The hangings and curtains are of chintz. 
and the furnishings are such as are intended to give a homelike 
atmosphere to the club. Large, easy rockers invite the soldiers to a 
pleasant smoke and the companionship of an evening before a cheerful 
fire. In short, says The Modern Hospital in describing the club, ''nothing 
has been neglected which will add to the comfort of the blind soldier in 
letting him know that Canada aims to repay him for the sacrifice he has 


!)lc^Cs from 3'U ^Reâicaf V)oÂà 

By Elizabeth Robinson Scovil 

It is said that one of the surest and best prophylactics against the 
poison of ivy and sumac is the use of soap and hot water. The Rhus 
poison, after being deposited on the skin, requires a certain time to 
penetrate. If this penetration can be prevented, irritation and the erup- 
tion that follows it can be prevented. Soap and hot water is also a 
good curative agent when the affection has developed. 

A Clinic for the Well 

It is stated that a medical clinic for those who are well is being 
established at London, Ont. It is proposed to have well people come to 
the clinic for examination, so that they may learn whether they are 
suffering from incipient disease, so as to secure treatment before it is 
too late. A moderate fee is to be charged for each examination. 

Ether in Whooping-Cough 

A French physician uses injections of ether in the buttocks in 
whooping-cough. It is a question whether it acts by attenuating the 
tendency to spasms or by direct disinfection of the tissues. He had 
never given more than three injections in one case. 

London Surgeons 

Dr. E. A. AlcCulloch, of Toronto, has expressed his opinion of 
London surgeons in a letter to the press. He says : "In Canada and 
the United States we always considered that we had the finest surgeons 
in the world. Without disparaging our own men, I will freely admit 
that, in the large hospitals in London, I saw a better system of handling 
patients, operations more quickly performed and just as skilfully, and a 
personal modesty in the part of the operator which is not a conspicuous 
attribute of our own surgeons. Vienna and Berlin were the lodestars of 
post-graduate students ; London may be, in future, the medical Mecca 
of the world. 


In a paper on this subject in the Canadian Medical Association 
Journal, Dr. J. W. Richardson, Calgary, says that the most concise 
definition of shock that he has seen is that it "is a condition marked by 
gradual and progressive fall of blood-pressure with no obvious cause, 
such as hemorrhage, alteration of intercranial pressure or heart failure." 
If external heat is applied to the body, shock may be prevented, or even 
arrested. The head should be lowered, transfusion of blood tried, un- 


der certain safeguards. The most valuable stimulant seems to be adren- 
alin, administered slowly and intravenouslv. 

Vaginal Poisoning 

Several cases of poisoning- by douches of a solution of hi-chloride 
of mercury have been reported. In one case a tablet was inserted in 
the vagina ; in another the tablet was placed, undissolved, in the bulb 
of a syringe. The self-administration of this dangerous drug may cause 
fatal results. 

SociETv OF Anesthetists 

A Canadian Society of Anesthetists has been incorj^orated by letters 
patent of the Dominion Government. Its aim is the promotion of the 
science, practice and teaching of anesthesia. 

Energy Expended in Household Tasks 

In a paper written by two members of the Ofifice of Home Econ- 
omics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, it is stated that light tasks, 
such as sewing, crocheting or embroidering, call for an average expen- 
diture of about nine calories an hour more than would be used if the 
person doing them sat quietly in a chair. Harder work, as washing, 
sweeping and scrubbing, demand at least 50 calories an hour. It is im- 
portant to have the implements used fit the worker. The mere change 
in the height of the table at which work is done may cause from 20 to 
40 per cent, in the calories required. In the sick-room a very small 
degree of discomfort, or added effort, wastes a relatively large fraction 
of the patient's strength and energy. Even sitting up and dressing 
means a real cost to the body, which at times must be avoided. 

Fighting \'exereal Disease 
At a banquet given in Toronto to Miss \'iolet Trench by the 
Canadian National Council for Combating Venereal Diseases, the guest 
of honor said: "Condemnation leads to concealment, the presence of 
disease does not prove guilt, it may have been contracted innocently. 
The unequal standard in the sexes is a lie. The standard which is the 
right of every human being, and one lived up to by many men and 
women, is absolute chastity before marriage and absolute faithfulness 
after marriage." 

Search thine own heart. What paineth thee 

In others, in thyself may be ; 

All dust is frail, all flesh is weak; 

Be thou the true man thou dost seek. 

John G. Whittier. 

Anybody can afford to be broad-minded when he can't afford to 
tell the truth. 



vJ^ublic v3vealt^ .ylursing JDepartment 


Address public health news items from each province to the following 

Nova Scotia 

Miss E. AI. Pemberton, 
Victoria General Hospital, 

Newr Brunswick 

Miss Sarah Brophy, 
74 Carmarthen Street, 
St. John, N.B. 



Miss Eunice H. Dyke, 
City Hall, Toronto. 


Aliss Elizabeth Russell, 

Provincial Board of Health, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



Miss Christine Smith, 

Department of Public Health, 
Province of Alberta, 
Edmonton, Alta. 

British Columbia 


Questions on public health subjects will be received by the Chairman of 
the Public Health Section of the Canadian National Association of Trained 
Nurses, Miss Eunice H. Dyke, City Hall, Toronto. Each question will be 
forwarded to nurses qualified to discuss the subject. 

From a Victorian Order Nurse 

The question is often asked, "Is a visiting- nurse a public health 
nurse?" I think there can be no doubt in the mind of the nurse who finds 
herself the only trained nurse in some of our towns and villages. There 
she has to give bedside nursing care, be school nurse and social service 
worker all in one. In the town where I have been nursing for the last 
year we have a population of about 3,500. A few of these are foreigners, 
mostly Russian and Polish Jews. 

There is no hospital in town, but we have a small house where the 
nurse lives with a housekeeper. We have two rooms, which are fitted up 
as wards, and we take in patients who cannot get proper care in their own 
homes. They pay" according to their means, and no one is turned away 
because they have not sufficient means. Most of our patients are ob- 
stetrical cases. I fix the mother and baby up first thing in the morning 
and leave them to the care of the housekeeper, while I go out to attend 
my patients in the district. I make nursing, pre-natal, child welfare and 
social service visits ; usually I have an average of from ninety-five to a 
himdred visits a month. 

We have three public schools, with an attendance of about four hun- 
dred and twentv-five children. I examine the children once a month. The 


schools are old and not built for a school nurse, but. as the cloakrooms 
have larg-e windows, we use them, and they do very nicely. The children, 
on a whole, are clean and healthy. The teachers are very good at co- 
operating with me regarding clean hands and faces and teeth. In the 
junior rooms we have the names of the little ones on the board, and those 
who come to school clean and tidy and have brushed their teeth get a red 
star after their name. There is great rivalry to see who has the most stars 
at the end of the week. We have printed instructions to the parents on 
the care of the teeth, heads, etc.. and the danger of enlarged tonsils and 
adenoids. These we give to the children to take home. In serious cases 
I go to the homes myself and see the parents. We have placed emergency 
kits in each school, which have been found very useful, as the children 
frequently meet with little accidents. 

We started our well baby clinic last of all. At first it was hard to 
get the women to understand that it was well babies we wanted, but now 
the majority are keenly interested. If it will encourage any other nurse, 
let me tell you that we started our first clinic with one baby, but now we 
have an average of seven or eight every Saturday afternoon. I hold the 
clinics at the Home. We have no doctor, but the sick babies I send to 
their family physician ; and any other little advice the mother needs, I can 
usually suggest something that will be a help to baby. It is difficult to 
get the foreign women interested ; but I have one who comes quite regu- 
larly now, so that will mean others will follow. This Jewish woman said 
to me the other day that she could hardly wait for Saturday to come "to 
see how much my baby make fat." Through these clinics I keep in touch 
with all my babies, born either in the Home or the district. If more than 
two or three weeks elapse without them coming, I visit them to see what 
the trouble is. Any baby that ' has to be bottle-fed, I usually go for a 
few mornings and show the mother how to prepare the milk. We have 
a Samaritan Committee, composed of some of the ladies of the town, and 
they keep my cupboards well stocked with extra bedding and sick-room 
necessities for the P. X. in the district. Any little luxury, in the way of 
nourishment, or extra milk for a nursing mother, they will supply them 
for me. 

The Xurses' Home is a centre where anyone can come for help and 
advice. A man, who has lost his wife, comes for us to find a good home 
for his baby and board. A mother comes abotit her boy of ten who has 
gotten beyond her control, and we put her in touch with the Children's 
Aid Society in the next town. 

These are only a few of the many cases which come to the visiting 
nurse ever}' day. 

A letter from ]\Iiss Jean Browne, R.N., the following information 
regarding the personnel of those who are in the class taking the public 
health nursing work at King's College for W^omen under the auspices 
of the International Red Cross Society. There are two nurses from the 


United States, and one from each of the following countries : England, 
Canada, Peru. \'enezuela,, France, Belgium. Portugal. Italy. Poland, 
Czecho-Slavonia. Roumania, Ser.via. Greece and Russia. These re- 
present the highest types of nursing in the countries from which they 
come. Miss Cowlin, of the London College of Xursing. who was to 
have been in charge of this group, resigned her position, and Miss Fitz- 
gerald has been appointed in her place. 

Miss Margaret Mackenzie, who has recently completed a post- 
graduate course in public health nursing in Toronto, has been appointed 
general superintendent of public health nurses in Xova Svotia. Her 
office will be in the Annex of the Provincial Buildings, as is also the 
Massachusetts-Halifax Health Commission. ISIiss ^Mackenzie is well 
known in her native province as a graduate and subsequently night su- 
pervisor of \'ictoria General Hospital, Halifax. She has also had ex- 
perience on the staff of the Ptere Brent Brigham Hospital, Boston, and 
has an excellent record of overseas military ser^'ice. 

blisses Margaret B. Fothergill, Catharine Graham, ^Slary Keating 
and Alice Godard have been appointed for work under the ^lassachu- 
setts-Halifax Health Commission. The last three nurses are members 
of the first class in public health nursing in Dalhousie University. 

Miss Mary Hayden has been appointed public health nurse for 
Yarmouth County, with headquarters in Yarmouth. 

Miss Gertrude Mackenzie has a similar appointment for Pictou 
County, with headquarters at Stellerton. 

A course in public health nursing has been established at the Uni- 
versity of British Columbia, the opening class starting in November. 
This course is under the combined departments of nursing and public 
health connected with the University. Miss ]\Iary Ard ]\Iackenzie, 
B.A.R.X., has been appointed under the department of Public Health 
and will have supervision of the field work and general arrangement 
and instruction of those taking this course, with the assistance of Miss 
Ethel I. Johns of the Xursing Department. Miss Mackenzie is widely 
known all over the Dominion, having been for several years chief su- 
perintendent of the \'.O.X. and as president of the Canadian Association 
of Trained X'urses. 

It's easy to laugh when the storm is o'er 

And your ship is safe in port ; 
Yes, easy to laugh when you're on the shore, 

Secure from the tempest's sport. 
But when wild waves wash o'er the storm-swept deck. 
And your gallant ship is a battered wreck. 
Ah. that is the time when it's well worth while 
To look in the face of defeat with a smile. 

E. C. AuRix. 


JL/epartn>ent of »ylursiî>9 Û)aucaticT> 

Conducted by the Canadian Association of Nursing Education 


(Editor's Note: — This L^niversity has. with several others, brought 
pubUc health nursing into its curriculum. The Western University 
varies from some of the others in giving this course, not only to grad- 
uate nurses, but as an elective in the last year of the under-graduate 
nurse, a most desirable thing, and one which others will copy, it is 
hoped. The time-table at the end of the description of the course is, 
of course, only a tentative one.) 

The Western University Executive Committee has authorized an 
announcement of the course leading to certificate of public health nurse, 
beginning October 15th. 1920. and running 30 weeks, about 900 hours. 
Graduate nurses from accredited schools are eligible, and undergrad- 
uates who have four months left of their final year may, if the training 
hospital has arranged an elective choice for these four months, spend it 
in this course and be credited on their nursing diploma with the time 
thus spent. About one-half of the course will consist of field work, the 
nurse spending a certain time, under the supervisor, in the observation 
and study of school nursing, tuberculosis work, etc., and then being 
placed' to work under the school nurse, tuberculosis nurse, etc., whose 
work she has thus studied, thus doing the work herself under expert 
supervision. Each form of public health nursing will be thus first 
studied and then practiced in this manner. Clinics in contagious dis- 
eases, tuberculosis, etc., are included. 

The theoretical subjects will include psychology, educational psy- 
chology, mental hygiene, history and present status of public health 
nursing, principles and practice, home economics, dietetics, together 
with courses taken in conjunction with those given to graduate phy- 
sicians who are candidates for the D.P.H., including general hygiene, 
sanitation and public health work, preventive medicine, vital statistics, 
epidemiology, physics, chemistry and bio-chemistry, geology, prenatal, 
infant and child welfare, medical school inspection, sociology, gen. P.H. 
administration and special work in tuberculosis and venereal diseases, 
contagious hospital and sanatorium administration. 

Nurses who have had post-graduate courses, the equivalent of any 
of these or practical experience, may secure corresponding credits and 



Public health nurses already in practice, but desiring the certificate, 
may be allowed credits for experience and also may spread the course 
over two or more years, thus gradually acquiring the needed credits 
without suspending their present duties entirely. 

The courses are given by the full time staff of the Faculty of 
Public Health, Faculty of ^Medicine, and Faculty of Arts of Western 
University, the whole being under the direction of the Dean of the 
Faculty of Public Health. A Supervisor of Public Health Nursing, on 
the staff of the Institute of Public Health, will give the strictly nursing 
subjects and supervise the field work. The fee of $100.00, no extras, 
and remains the same whether the course be taken in one academic year 
or divided over two or more. 




















Gen. Hyg. 


Prev. Dis. 






Vit. Stat. 








P. H. Adm. 





Child Welf. 

Pers. Hyg. 





Vit. Stat. 




P. H. Adm. 







Prev. Dis. 




Gen. San. 


10 weeks 






Pub. Sp. 

5 weeks 

Contag. Hosp. 

10 weeks 




. 3-4 


Pub. Sp. 
5 weeks 
10 weeks 






Pers. Hyg. 

Child Welf. 



Courage, brother ! do not .stumble. 

Though thy path be dark as night ; 
There's a star to guide the humble — 

"Trust in God. and do the right." 
Though the road be long and dreary, 

And its ending out of sight, 
Foot it bravely, strong or weary — 

"Trust in God. and do the right." 


By Elizabeth Robinson Scovil 

The Drug Habit 

The Canadian Government has issued some far-reaching regula- 
tions of the drug traffic in Canada. Measures are to be adopted which 
will make the carrying on of illicit drug traffic practically impossible. 

Compared with the three months ending June 30th last year, the 
amount of cocaine imported into Canada for the same period this year 
has dropped from 2,373 ounces to 605 ounces ; morphine fell from 
11.098 ounces to 3.978 ounces, and opium from 7.931 pounds to 993 

Experts in other countries state that Canada's method of overcom- 
ing the drug evil is being copied, and that th€ system is more compre- 
hensive, more practical, and, indeed, more successful, than any system 
yet devised. 

Sheep on the Battlegrounds 

The Royal Agricultural Society sent 430 sheep of the Suffolk, South- 
down and Kerry breeds to the neighborhood of the Upper Marne and 
near Rheims and Chalons. These have multiplied, and the fîocks now 
number 663. The Belgian farmers' wives are enthusiastic over the cattle 
sent. They are the hornless .variety, and were regarded as a great 
curiosity when they arrived. British cattle, sheep and pigs are also flour- 
ishing on the Somme. 

Can-\dian Indians in the War 

According to official records, more than 4,000 Indians enlisted for 
active service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force. This represents 
approximately 35 per cent, of the Indian male population of military age 
in the Dominion. 

Oil Fuel Instead of Coal 

Very successful experiments have recently been made in England in 
the substitution of oil for coal in locomotive engines. It is said that 
steam can be raised in half the time required with coal. Pumps and pipes 
take the place of hundreds of workmen who have to handle the solid 
fuel, and the furnace is fed automatically, so the fireman is dispensed 
with. There is no smoke nor cinders to inconvenience passengers. 

Straightening Children's Backs 

The school of massage at King's College Hospital, London, pre- 
scribe crawling exercises for children with curvature of the spine. The 


crawling expands the chest and straightens the back. Two curves are 
used, and various movements of the arms and legs are taught. 

Ax Air Express 

Airplanes, flying 100 miles an hour, now maintain a regular daily 
ser\'ice between London and Paris, occupying two and a-half hours in 
the journey. During fourteen weeks, 2,500 passengers were carried by 
this route. The air way will, in time, be as common a route of travel as 
the railway. 

A Quakers' Pilgrimage 

William Penn. the founder of Pennsylvania, is buried at Jordons. in 
Buckinghamshire. Recently a number of Quakers from the United States 
visited his burial place. The old Jordons barn at this place is thought to 
have been built from the timbers of the Mayflower. Only one of the 
women pilgrims wore a Quaker bonnet. 

\\'ar Memorials 

It has been suggested that the most effective memorial for those 
who died at the front is the establishment of some form of permanent 
community' service, and that the community house in which this service 
centres should be erected as the memorial. Where ample funds are not 
available, schoolhouses may. with a little foresight, be adapted for com- 
munity centres. Some of the new ones are built with movable seats and 
partitions to provide room for motion pictures and social gatherings. 
Bulletin 11 of the War Camp Community Service has some good sug- 
gestions. It can be obtained from Xo. 1 Madison Avenue, New York. 

A League of Friexdship 

General Sir Arthur Currie, Principal of McGill. urges a league of 
friendship between Great Britain and the L'nited States, without which, 
he thinks, permanent peace is impossible. The closest kind of inter- 
national co-operation and understanding between Canada and the L'nited 
States is also desirable. 

LooKiXG Towards Reuxiox 

The preliminary meeting of the World Conference on Christian 
Faith and Order met at Geneva, Switzerland. It represented eighty 
churches and forty nations. It developed a new method of friendly 
conference, replacing fruitless controversy on the differences between 
the Christian churches. A continuation committee was appointed of 
Anglicans, Armenians, Baptists, Congregationalists, Disciples of Christ, 
Eastern Orthodox, German Evangelists, Lutherans, Methodists, Old 
Catholics, Presbyterians, Quakers and Reformed. 

How poor are they that have no patience! — Shakespeare. 


Canadian Army Medical Nursing Service Department 


It was pouring- rain, and from the frowsy bedroom window of The 
Louvre, that famous hostel known to all Canadian Sisters, we looked 
out on the glistening pavements of Boulogne, with its quaint spires, 
fascinating shops and crowds of cosmopolitan passers-by. December in 
France '17 was chilly, damp, and the wind blew up from the channel 
with a biting insistence, very trying to withstand. But who cared, with 
the sunshine of the South in sight and two long delightful weeks all to 
ourselves ? 

We pinned on our hats at firm angles and sallied down to dinner. 
At the next table sat two British Sisters, who gazed on our stars with 
an appraising eye. By the window were two Australians, who smiled 
gaily at us. They, too, were evidently bound South : while the sup- 
pressed mirth from a party of V.A.D. and ambulance-drivers in the 
corner pointed them out as possible companions. 

We had fried sole for dinner — would that it were more than a 
memory now ! — and twisty rolls and white cream cheese, and other items 
that France alone produces. After dinner, went to bed, first having 
painstakingly inscribed our names on the blackboard, to indicate to all 
that two Canadian Nursing Sisters wished to arise at 6 a.m. to catch 
the Paris express. This public avowal was about where it began and 
ended, for no 6 o'clock thump on the door was forthcoming, and 6.45 
a.m. saw two wild-eyed Canadian Sisters, bundling themselves into their 
brass-buttoned coats and stumbling downstairs in the dim December 

"Pourquoi didn't you wake us?" we enquired feebly, but with a 
good accent (the phrase book hadn't told us how to get up early, 
though it talked about nearly everything else). A polite shrug was the 
only answer, and Monsieur pointed his finger at the board, which 
bristled with every name but ours — they had evidently erased them in 
a fit of cleanliness. But we had neither time nor fluency with which 
to argue the point, and so raced across the street and into the station, 
where a friendly corporal shouldered our luggage and trotted, puffing, 
behind us, to where a group of Sisters stood outside the carriage door 
— the most imposing one checking the names ofif the leave warrant. 


We were evidently the last, by their strained expression. Almost im- 
mediately the train pulled out into the wintry country-side, and, leaving 
Boulogne behind, we settled ourselves down for the day, feeling ner- 
vously once in a while to see if our bundle of franc notes still reposed 
in our innermost pocket. Etaples, Abbeville, Avignon (where a scanty 
lunch was obtained) were passed; the afternoon closed down and G 
o'clock saw us drawing into Paris. Like sheep, we followed our British 
leader, who, fitll of confidence, led the way down the platform. Dinner 
was our object, and that rather soon. Help, and hopes of sustenance in 
the shape of a valuable little French officer in the uniform of the 
British Red Cross, met us at the gateway with a cheery but determined 
smile. Not for nothing had he been conducting parties of strong- 
minded females from Paris to Cannes for the last year — Canadian and 

"You will give your luggage to this man," indicating a Scottie cor- 
poral, "and you yourselves will, with me, come in the ambulance." 

"But we want our dinner," we protested nervously, "and we always 
keep our bags. You might lose them." 

He smiled witheringly and herded us into a grey ambulance, and 
we unhappily watched the Jock make away with the kit. Would we 
ever see it again ? But who has trusted the Scotch in vain ? Not the 
Sisters, certainly ; and it all turned up again in an hour's time as we 
climbed up into the train that was to carry us another twenty-four 
hours on our way. 

How many nights since, I wonder, have we spent sitting up in a 
closed carriage, rolled in rugs, the train racing southward, a fat poilu 
asleep in the corridor outside, and the snores of the British major in 
the next compartment sounding like a wheezy orchestral accompani- 
ment to the rumble of the wheels! But we slept, in cramped snatches, 
and awoke to sunrise on the Maritime Alps. We were in a new coun- 
try ; gone were the dreary stretches of snow-covered fields, the slushy 
station platforms and the bare trees of the North. We hardly knew the 
war was on. Marseilles platform was filled with a cosmopolitan crowd 
— pretty girls in gay dresses, smart ladies in frocks that we envied, and 
everywhere for sale the great baskets of tangerines gay with sprigs of 
myrtle. The sunshine faded, and our first glimpse of the Mediterranean 
was by moonlight as the train pulled into Cannes. The air was delight- 
fully warm, and, after an agitated search for a conveyance, we at last 
found a weedy-looking individual who mentioned that his destination 
was I'Hotel Esterelle. We all clambered in — British, Australian and 
Canadian — together and rumbled up the narrow streets. Cannes was 
gay with light, which itself was a sight to us accustomed to the murky 
darkness of the coast towns. The shops were filled with Christmas 
holly. It was almost unbelievable that only yesterday had we been m 
the slush and blackness of Boulogne; here all was life and color, with 
only an occasional khaki figure to remind us that the war was still on. 


I wonder if anyone knows and appreciates fully what it is to wake 
up in the morning and realize that don't-have-to-get-up feeling? (Those 
words should be written in capitals.) It was almost too good to be 
true ; and we sat nervously up as a charming lady came in with a real 
"petit dejeuner" on a tray, and tried to look as if we were accustomed 
to it all our lives. From outside in the grand salon came the merry 
clatter of tongues, for it was Christmas Eve ; and the great tree stood 
in the centre of the room, and round about were dozens of Sisters and 
V.A.D's, making holly wreaths, winding tinsel and fashioning stylish 
bows for the fat and delightful cats. Xo one who has enjoyed the 
hospitality of I' Hotel Esterelle could ever forget those three delight- 
full pussies who balanced on the top of the pantry screen during dinner, 
curled up by the fire at tea-time and visited their friends all day from 
breakfast onward. 

Cannes was at its holiday best for the' Christmas season. The fruits 
and sweets were wonderful to behold — the pastries melted in our 
mouths. With baskets on arms, we shopped gaily. We patronized 
everything, from the hairdressers to the curio shops, and invested in 
linens, laces and gloves ; while gay and polite little mademoiselles, 
pressing us to buy, brought out great treasures of rare and lovely em- 
broideries, and coaxed the francs away from our Scotch and economical 
pockets. But it was Christmas, and we were far from home and sadly 

The day itself was cool and beautiful, and the early service in the 
little stone church at the foot of the hill brought out quite a number of 
Sisters. Then home to breakfast, and a long walk; and, after that, such 
a Christmas dinner — the kind that we rose from slowly, feeling that 
we could never look a turkey in the face again. At five came the 
gorgeous Christmas tree, with presents for all and three gay saucers 
for the three cats, presented with much merriment. A dance followed ; 
the gayest overseas Christmas that we had ever had. 

Xo one in our profession is addicted to getting up early — of that 
we are positive ; but when the day is fine, a seven-seated car at the 
door, and the exquisite coast-line of the Mediterranean at our feet, 
who could remain at home? .And so 7.30 a.m. saw a party of soberly- 
clothed but superlatively cheerful Canadians skimming down the road 
to Monte Carlo. It was bitterly cold, and we tied ourselves up in rugs 
and reminisced about home till the pangs of hunger assailed us, and 
we demanded a stop for "chocolat." 

"But breakfast you eat at Monte Carlo," said the perplexed driver, 
for he was not accustomed to Canadians. 

"Xo," we said, firmly and hungrily, "we're going to get out here." 

He regarded us glumly. That meant the first upset in his day's 

programme. But out we got, and the gayest of French waiters came 

out, rubbing his hands just as they do in the pictures, and we followed 


him into a funny little salon, where madame sat and did lace work by 
the side of a tiled stove. In fifteen minutes we were on our way again, 
passing- row after row of white stucco villas, with the roses blooming 
over the doorways, sometimes circling around the bay. where a red- 
roofed town stretched down to the water's edge. After running smooth- 
ly for miles along a road bordered with sycamore and olive trees, upon 
which the black fruit grew in profusion, and, filled with a yearning for 
olives, the most agile Sister hopped out. but. judging from her expres- 
sion as she hastily got into the car again, her experience had been a very 
sour one. 

Alonte Carlo is a fascinating spot ; and the wonderful Casino, with 
its white porticos, through which the crowd was commencing to stream. 
was a sight we enjoyed. No one in uniform was allowed in during the 
gaming hours ; so at i) a.m. we were politely ushered out by bowing 
gentlemen with delightful black waxed whiskers, such as we had read 
about in novels but never before seen. There is no doubt that, as a 
nation, the French have a charming courtesy of manner that smooths 
the path of the traveller, though we must confess that the interchange 
of a five-franc note is a great inducement to the suave bow and the 
cordial "A'voir M'selle, bon voyage." 

Shopping in Nice ; a wonderful trip to the edge of Italy, where, 
leaning our elbows on the great stone culvert that marks the boundary 
between the two countries, we gazed out over the blue Mediterranean, 
and a long drive home through the mountains brought our day to a 
close. We almost had mental indigestion, so much had we seen that 
was new and interesting ; and we crawled thankfully into bed, blessing 
the man who had invented hot-water bags. 

The days passed with terrible rapidity, it seemed to us ; but such 
wonderful days as they were ; with the sunshine above, and the sea 
before us, and the playground of the world, as the Riviera is called, to 
explore as we would. One day to La Gorge de la Loup, where we 
motored through the Maritime Alps, crawling like flies on the clififs till 
we were above the clouds. Another exc|uisite sunshiny morning to St. 
Rafael, and still again to Grasse, where we watched the manufacture 
of the famous French perfumes — from the crushing of the petals of 
the violets and roses to the final distilling into the narrow-necked bottles. 

liut the North was calling us — there in the cold and damj) of the 
Channel towns were the long lines of tents and huts, where the con- 
voys streamed in daily and the work awaited us. So we packed our 
bulgy holdalls — the like of which we would not have been seen travel- 
ling with in Canada ; but overseas everybody's possessions seemed to 
stick out of their kits in imwierdly lumps that always disclosed their 
identity, which was hardly to be wondered at, considering that, in our 
dunnage bags, we carried everything from a stove to a set of golf 
sticks. I>ut ])ack them wc had to; and two mournful Canadian Sisters 


stood on the Cannes platform, each chitching a larij;e wicker basket of 
tangerines, and wishing that leave had only just begun. 

H. M. D. 
Xo. T Canadian General Hospital. 

Congratulations to our American Sisters on the issue of the lîill 
granting relative rank to the members of the Army Xurse Corps. The 
measure was attained largely owing to the persistent and untiring 
efforts of that admirable doyen of the nursing world. Miss Anna C. 
Maxwell. Xew York. 

The following members of the Reserve of Officers have received 
the appointment of Xursing Sisters in the R.C.A.M.C. : 

Matron— Miss E. F. Pease, A.R.R.C. and R.R.C. 

Xursing Sister— Miss F. H. Wylie. A.R.R.C. and R.R.C. 

Matron— Miss L. G. Squire. A.R.R.C. and R.R.C. 

Xursing Sister— Miss L. C. Savard. A.R.R.C. and R.R.C. 

Xursing Sister — Miss R. T.. Wurtele (seconded to the Royal Mili- 
tary College). 

During September. Colonel and Mrs. J. J. Fraser (nee Xursing 
Sister G. B. McCullough. A.R.R.C. ") visited in Ottawa prior to leaving 
for the British Honduras, where Colonel Fraser has received an ai>point- 
ment with the British Civil Service: Mrs. Fraser promises a letter to 
this department after she becomes settled and acclimated. 

The Dominion Orthopaedic Hospital. Toronto, transferred to the 
S. C. R.. Xovemher 1st. Miss A. J. Hartley. R.R.C. and bar. taking 
over the duties of matron. 

Xursing Sister H. Drummond has been ajipointed to the staff' of 
the Sick Children's Hospital. Toronto. 

Xursing Sister G. Lightbound sailed for England on the 16th inst. 
It is her intention to take up public health nursing in London. 

X'ursing Sister G. Halpenny has returned from Simmons College. 
Boston, where she completed a course in public health nursing. The 
Jewish Benevolent Society of Ottawa are anxious to obtain the services 
of Xursing Sister Halpenny. and wish her to proceed to Poland to 
assist in the scheme for bringing Jewish orphans to Canada. 

^latron Jean Stronach. R.R.C. of Sydenham Hospital. Kingston, 
spent Thanksgiving- Day in Ottawa. 

^Matron Florence Grand has been appointed to the S.C.R. Hospital. 
St. Anne de Bellevue. This information appeared in the press some 
days previous to the date upon which Miss Grand's predecessor in 
office. ^latron F. W. Pyke. was notified that her services would no 
longer be required. Apart from the discourtesy, it would seem as if an 
injustice has been done Matron Pyke. This incident further shows the 


need of some one to specially look after the interests of the Department 
of Nursing, S.C.R. 

The C.A.M.C. Xursing Reserve provides a large field from which 
the selection of a matron-in-chief. S.C.R.. might suitably be made. 


At Knox Church. Winnipeg. 28th September, 19'20, Xursing Sister 
Mina Mowat. A.R.R.C. to :\Ir. R. Douglas Waugh. Mr. and Mrs. 
W'augh left immediately for Geneva, Switzerland, where they will re- 
side for the next few vears. 

The Poz^'cr of the Alumnae. Annette Alison. R.X. ; printed by Everett 
S. Dowdle, Oakland. Cal. 

This book opens the door to a viewpoint that is too generally neg- 
lected — that of the power of the alumnae, who could so often do more 
to change conditions in her training school and work for a higher 
standard of the nursing profession than anyone else. She alone knows 
the hospital from its inside, its strong points, and the weak features of 
the training. Miss Alison is to be congratulated on producing this book, 
and it is hoped that all training school alumnae associations will take 
advantage of the power that is theirs. 

Everyday Month Hygiene. Joseph Head. M.D.. D.D.S.. Dentist to the 
Jefferson Hospital. Philadelphia: r2mo.. of 67 pages, with 39 illus- 
trations. Philadelphia and London : W. B. Saunders Company, 
1920. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

In spite of constant reiteration that many diseases arise from un- 
cleanliness and decay of the teeth, this book shows clearly that many 
methods of cleansing the mouth have been failures, and this book makes 
the proper way clear and definite. Dr. Head is the dentist of the Jef- 
ferson Hospital, Philadelphia, and sees the need of clearer instruction 
to the nurse-in-trainiu"^. 

American Pocket Medical Dictionary. Edited by W. A. Newman Dor- 
land, M.D., Editor American Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 11th 
edition, revised and enlarged. ;32mo.. of 71? pages. Philadelphia 
and London: W. B. Saunders Company. 1919. Flexible leather, 
gold edges: ])lain. $1.7.5 net: thumb index. $2.00 net. 


vl/vcspitals ana _Jl 

aT\a -yvurses 


Miss -A. lUirns has gone to Toronto to take up work with the \'ic- 
torian Order of Xurses. 

A great many of the i^rackiate nurses, as well as several of the 
\'ictorian Order nurses, assisted Dr. Roberts. Minister of Health, in the 
child welfare exhibit recently held in St. John. 

Congratulations are extended to Mrs. W. L. Rcid (formerly Julia 
Peters). Mrs. H. Mercer ( Xan Day). Mrs. DeW'itt Cairns and Mrs. R. 
Hawker (Edith Armstrong") on recent arrivals in their families. 

On September 15th the nurses gave a novelty shower, in honor of 
Miss Gertrude Wilson (class 1913). at the residence of Mrs. J. H. 
Vaughan. Dainty refreshments were served, and a very pleasant even- 
ing spent. 

Miss Starrs has gone to Fredericton on the staff of the hospital, in 
charge of the operating-room. 

Miss Story has taken the position recently made vacant at the 
Evangeline Home by the resignation of Miss Starr. 

Miss Margaret Davies has returned from overseas. 

]\Iiss Géraldine Morris (General Public Hospital, 1917) is taking a 
special course at the Montreal Maternity Hospital. 

Miss Sniven (General Public Hospital. 1915) has accejited a posi- 
tion in the Memorial Hospital. St. Stephen. X.B. 

Miss Pearl Fox (1916) has gone to Winnipeg. 

Miss Alethea Gilmour (1920) has gone to Detroit to practice her 

]Mrs. Fox and Miss McDonald (1907) have accepted positions in 
the Mayo Hospital. Rochester, Minn. 

The regrets of the association are expressed at the resignation of 
Miss Burns, who is leaving the province to take up other work. Mrs. 
A'aughan has been elected vice-president in her place, and her interest 
in the profession is well known. 

Miss Hattie Blanche, a graduate of the St. John General Public 
Hospital, who has been in charge of one of the floors in that institution, 
left recently to assume a responsible position in the Houlton (Me.) 

Miss Belle B. Howe, who for the past four years has had charge 
of the surgical outdoor department in the General Public Hospital here. 


will neave next Wednesday for Xe\v York, to accept the position of 
nig-ht supervisor of the Xew York Hospital. 

A successful pantry and home-cooking sale was held under the 
auspices of the Graduate Xurses' Association. St. John Chapter, for the 
purpose of raising money to erect a memorial to commemorate the 
memory of Xursing Sister Anna Stamers, who was drowned when the 
Llandovery Castle was torpedoed by a German submarine and sunk 
during the war. A substantial sum was realized. ]\Iiss Ella McGaffi- 
gan. convener, was assisted by }klrs. Leonard Dunlop, ]\Irs. A. P>urn- 
ham. ]\Irs. McLellan, ^liss Holt, Miss Fraser, Mrs. J- \ aughan, }iliss 
Eva Smith and Mrs. Fenwick ]\IcKelvie. 


The marriage of Elizabeth, widow of Dr. J. J. Doyle, and Dr. E. 
\'. Hogan, which took place at Long Island, X. Y.. is of special interest 
to members of the medical and nursing professions. Mrs. Doyle has 
been always a most active and interested member, and was last year, by 
unanimous vote, elected president of the Graduate Xurses" Association ; 
and as Xursing Sister and Matron at Cogswell Street Hospital she was 
also most popular. As an eminent surgeon of Hahfax. and for his dis- 
tinguished services overseas, Col. Hogan is also well known. He suc- 
ceeded Col. Stewart as commanding officer of the Dalhousie Hospital 

Miss Anna Brennen (A'.G.H., '19) accompanied her aunt, Mr>. 
Hogan, to Xew York, and will remain for some time. 

Other \'. G. graduates visiting Xew York this winter are Miss 
Ethel Redmond and Miss McLean. 

Miss Rutherford, who visited Halifax this month after several 
years' absence, was very warmly welcomed and entertained by St. 
Joseph's (G. B. ) graduates now on duty at Camp Hill Hospital, and 
other friends. 


Royal \'tctoria Hospit.m.. 

Miss Ada lUirton-Morriss (R.\'.H.. '19) has resigned her position 
as dietitian in the Ross Memorial Pavilion. Miss Cora Archibald, of 
the class of 1!mi7. has returned after an absence of several years, during 
which time she was overseas. She has taken the jiosition left vacant l)y 
Miss Burton-Morriss. 


Miss \. Peck (R.\.H., '1? j lias recently resigned her position on 
the hospital staff, and is doing- private nursing. 

Miss Ruth Cameron ( RA'.H., '17) paid a short visit to the hos- 
pital some weeks ago. She was en route from \'ancouver, where she 
has spent the last two years. 

Miss Goodhue visited Newfoundland this summer on a holiday trip. 
While in St. Johns, she was entertained by several R.WH. graduates. 

Recent graduates taking charge of wards are: Miss Lawlor, Miss 
Mittan, Miss Cruise, Miss Pendleton. Miss McCake. Miss Freeze. 

Miss Lindsay ('98) is at present filling the position of night super- 
intendent in the R.\\H. 

The nurses have greatly enjoyed, during the summer, the new 
tennis court given to them by Sir Vincent Meredith. A number of them 
engaged in a tournament, and a handsome silver cup was won by Miss 
]\Iary Lawson. class of 1922. 

The annual election of ofificers took place in the Nurses' Home at a 
largely attended meeting. Miss Goodhue was unanimously returned to 
the president's chair. 

Miss Dorothy Cotton addressed the assembly, telling of the Rou- 
manian unit, of which she has been chosen matron. The Canadian 
Nursing ^Mission has been organized for the purpose of introducing 
modern nursing methods into Roumania. The mission will sail for 
Roumania November 5th, on the steamer "Scotian." All of the eight 
nurses who comprise the mission are Canadian born. Madame Ethel 
Greening Pentazzi is the organizer of the mission. Miss Helen Kendall, 
R.\'.H. 1916 surgical nurse, served in France with the Canadian Hos- 
pital Unit. Miss J. Graham. M.G.H., served in France with C.A.M.C. 
^liss Olive Fitgibbon. R.\'.H., served in France C.A.M.C. Certificate 
for teaching French. Miss Dorothy Cotton, matron R.\'.H., served as 
Nursing Sister in England and France with the Anglo-American Unit at 
Petrograd ; Acting Matron at the I.O.D.E. Officers' Hospital, London ; 
Matron Camp Hill Hospital, N. S. ^liss Garfield MacKay, Newport, 
R. L, Hospital, went to France with Post Unit; went to Roumania with 
Cafrel Unit. Miss Margaret Killmaster, specialist in obstetrics, §^rad- 
uate Philadelphia General Hospital, served in France. Miss Clare Car- 
ter, Winnipeg General Hospital and Boston Cooking School, served in 

Miss Helen Buck, superintendent Buffalo General, was a guest of 
the R.\'.H. during convention week. 

Miss Helen Kendall, who has resigned as supervisor of the operat- 
ing-room of the Winnipeg General, was a visitor, en route to Sydney, 
Cape Breton, before sailing for Roumania November 5th. 

Miss Janet Slattery is at present assistant supervisor of the oper- 
ating-room. Winnipeg General Hospital. 


]\Hss Gene Currie and ^liss Ruth James have returned from a trip 
to the coast. 

Miss Marjorie Warren is doing special nursing, after a pleasant 
summer in the \Miite Mountains. 



The first meeting for the season of the T.G.H. Alumnae was held 
in the nurses' residence of the hospital on Wednesday evening. October 
.27th. Miss E. McP. Dickson, the new president, in the chair. After the 
reading of the minutes of the annual meeting, held in June, and of 
executive meeting, and discussions on the actual time of the alumnae 
year and payment of fees, the president, who brings honor to our alum- 
nae, as she is also president of C.N. A.T.N. , announced to the associa- 
tion the good news of the establishing of a course at !McGill for hos- 
pital administration and nurse teachers, and asked if we. as an 
association, would subscribe individually and send our collection to the 
C.N. A. to provide a scholarship at McGill for Canadian nurses. After 
a very short discussion, the association accepted the suggestion, and, at 
an early date, hope to have a goodly sum to send in. The meeting then 
adjourned to the reception-room, where Miss Locke, on behalf of Miss 
Gunn (who, unfortunately, had been called out of town), received the 
members, about fifty being present, and a social hour was spent, re- 
freshments being served by the head nurses as Miss Locke's assistants. 
Two members of the undergraduates, ]\Iiss Fisher of the senior class 
singing very delightfully several times and Miss Morrison playing the 

The .\lumnae Association of St. Michael's Hospital Training 
School for Nurses held their annual meeting in the assembly hall of 
the hospital Monday evening. May lUth. 

The following were elected for the ensuing year: 
President— ^Miss Julia O'Connor. 853 Bathurst Street, Toronto. 
"First Vice-President — Miss Mary L Foy. 
Second Nice- President — Miss G. lUirke. 
Third \'icc- President — Miss T. Marrin. 

Corresponding Secretary — Miss M. lUdlontyne, 18 Elm Grove Ave., 

Recording Secretary — Miss ^L Miller. G1 Simpson .\ve.. Toronto. 
Treasurer — Miss B. Oaks, 148 Frederick Street, Kitchener, Ont. 
First Director— Mrs. P. W. O'Brien. 
Second Director — Mrs. J. llafFey. 
Third Director— Miss B. Walsh. 


Representative to Central Registry for Nurses — Miss E. Stubher- 
field, 477 Parliament Street, Toronto. 

Press Representative — Miss C. McBride, 456 Palmerston Avenue, 

An active campaign is being conducted by the graduates of St. 
Michael's Hospital for furnishings for the new nurses' residence which 
is nearing completion. This campaign promises to be a great success. 


The first annual meeting of the Woodstock General Ilos])ital 
Alumnae was held September 27th, at the nurses' residence, the presi- 
dent. Miss M. H. Mackay, in the chair. After a short business session, 
a miscellaneous shower was given Miss Frances Brooks, a graduate of 
the 1919 class. Appropriate addresses were given by Miss F. Sharpe 
and Mrs. \'. L. Francis. 


?^Iiss Heath, till recently one of the supervisors at Hamilton Gen- 
eral Hospital, has accepted a position as assistant superintendent of the 
Presbyterian Hospital. New Orleans. 

Miss McPherson, of the FI.G.H., is taking the course in nursing at 
McGill University, ^Montreal. 

Miss Mary Bremner has returned to the H.G.H. after taking the 
summer course at Columbia University, New York. 

Miss Scarpet. industrial nurse for the Imperial Cotton Co., has re- 
turned from Boston, where she had been sent by the company in the 
interest of her work. 

Miss Barclay has severed her connection with Armour & Co., and 
accepted a position with the Babies' Welfare Association. 

The many friends of Nursing Sister Ida Carr will be pleased to 
learn that she is well enough to leave Gravenhurst, and is now at her 
home in St. Mary's. 

Miss Boyle, who has been doing private duty work in Hamilton, 
has moved with her family to Detroit. 

Miss Edith Insole was presented with a beautiful bag by the nurses 
of Hamilton's Central Registry, who wish her every success in her new 

Miss Kathleen Cassin was elected to take the place of Miss Bertha 
Tamieson, owing to the latter leaving the city, on the executive com- 
mittee of the Central Registry. 


Miss Eisele recently resigned as president of the Guelph Hospital 
Alumnae Association, to accept the position of superintendent of the 


hospital in Prince Albert, Sask. Aliss Ferguson was elected in her place 
as presiding officer of the association. 

^liss Smith, graduate of the Guelph General Hospital, has left the 
city, to be on the nursing staff of Melville Hospital. 

St. Catharines 

The annual meeting of the Alumnae Association of the Mack- 
Training School, General and Marine Hospital, was held September 1st 
in the Nurses' Home. After the election of officers, and other routine 
business. Miss Uren served tea. and a social time was thoroughly en- 

IMiss Alice Knight (1918) has accepted a position as night super- 
visor at the Agnew Sanitorium and Hospital, San Diego, Gal. 

^liss Helen Xisbet has resigned her position as night supervisor at 
the G. and M. Hospital, St. Catharines, and has been appointed superin- 
tendent at the Cottage Hospital, Xiagara-on-the-Lake. 

Miss \'era Brebner (1918) has accepted a position on the staff of 
the Brooklyn Hospital. Xew York. 

Miss Caroline Freel (1919) has been appointed night supervisor of 
the G. and M. Hospital, St. Catharines. 


The annual meeting of the Alberta Association of Registered 
N^urses was held with the Alberta Hospital Association in Calgary, 
October 20-'>2. After the business meeting the relationship between the 
provincial and local associations was discussed, the opening discussion 
being by Mrs. Manson, of Edmonton. Opportunities for service imder 
the Red Cross Society, Mrs. Waagen, and the public health section 
arranged by Miss Christine Smith, which included "The public health 
nurse as a teacher in the rural districts," by Miss E. M. Davidson ; "The 
public health nurse and the control of acute communicable diseases," by 
Miss Gladys Thurston, and "How can the public health nurse advance 
child welfare work in connection with health inspection of schools in 
the rural districts," by Miss L. E. Runinas ; "Child welfare work in 
the cities," Miss B. Emerson ; "The public health nurse and tuberculosis 
control," by Miss \'ocotria Ray ; and "The district nursing problem," 
by Miss G. de Turbeville, closed the programme of i)ai)ers. 

Discussion on legislation desirable for the association and a sym- 
posium on training of nurses by the combined associations covered the 
nursing topics at the meetings. 



HoDGESON — At the Montreal Maternity Hospital, Montreal, to Dr. 
and Mrs. F. Hodgeson (Xorah Anderson, R.X'.H., 1!)1<S), a daughter. 

Joyce — At the Montreal Maternity Hospital, to I^r. and Mrs. Cecil 
Joyce (Muriel Penny, R.WH.j, a daughter. 

Joyce — On October 1st. l!)2o, at the Montreal Maternity Hospital. 
to Dr. and Mrs. C. R. Joyce (Miss Muriel Penny. R.X'.H., '13). a 

Lewis — To Mr. and ^Irs. J. A. Lewis (Carrie Humphries, G. and 
M. Hospital, St. Catharines, 1!)16), on August 25th, at Kindersly, Sask., 

a daughter. 

^L\cIxTOSH — At Brandon, Man., October 1st. 1920. to Capt. and 
Mrs. W. M. Macintosh (Hilda MacDonald, R.\M-I., UJlôj, a daughter. 

McKay — At the Montreal Maternity Hospital, September 30th, 
1920, to Dr. and Mrs. Fred. .McKay (Miss Marian Crowell, R.V.H., 
1911), a son. 

]\L\cMiLL.\N — At the Montreal Maternity Hospital, August 27th, 
1920, to Dr. and Mrs. John MacMillan (Miss Edith Leslie, R.V.H., 
1912), a daughter. 

Moorish— At Sceptic, Sask., in August, to Dr. and Mrs. Walter 
Moorish (Miss Lilian Strachan, R.\'.H., '19), a daughter. 

Sxelgrove— At Fort William, to Mr. and :\Irs. R. A. Snelgrove 
(formerly Miss Mary A. Robinson, Toronto General Hospital, 1915), 
a daughter. 

Stewart— September 16th. 1920. To Mr. and Mrs. Walter Stew- 
art, 1:1:9 Sherbrooke Street, West, IMontreal, a son. Mrs. Stewart was 
Miss May Sharp (R.V.H., '07). 


Boivix-Darche— At Danville. Que.. September 16th. 1920, the 
49th anniversary of the marriage of the bride's parents. Berthe Darche 
(R.V.H., 1918) to Mr. J. R. Boivin, of Hull. Que. 

Browx-Moore— On Saturday, October 30th, 1920, at St. John's 
Episcopal Church, Saskatoon. Doris :\Iarie, daughter of Mrs. E. L. 
Moore. Cudworth, Sask.. to Lieut. LeeRoy L. Brown, D.F.C.. R.A.F., 
of London, England, son of Mrs. ^L L. Brown, Anlac. X. B. :\Irs. 
Brown is a graduate of the W.G.H., class '17, and has served two years 
with the C.A.M.C. 

Craig-Brooks— At Woodstock, Ont., New St. Paul's Church, Sep- 
tember 28th, 1920, Frances Brooks to Nathaniel Craig, of London, Ont. 
Mrs. Craig is a graduate of Woodstock General Hospital, class 1919. 


DuxcAX-PoLLARD — At Xanaimo, October 9th. 1920, Sarah Vic- 
toria Pollard ( Royal Jubilee Hospital, \'ictoria. 1920 ) to Mr. George 
Marr Duncan. 

Farlixger-McCorouadale — At Embor. Ont.. Sept. -ith, 1920. Miss 
Sara J. ^IcCorqtiadale (Royal \'ictoria Hospital. Montreal, 1919) to 
Dr. Anderson Farlinger (McGill. 'IT). At home. New Liskeard. Ont. 

Freemax-Eatox— At W'olfville, X. S., on October 12th, 1920, El- 
more Blanche Eaton (A'ancouver General Hospital), daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. L. H. Eaton, to Dr. Edward H. Freeman. 

Hamiltox-Bouldex — At Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Que., on Sept. 
22nd. 1920, :\Iuriel Gladys Boulden ( R.V.H.. 1916) to Mr. James 

Harris-Emerv — On Saturday. September ISth. 1920. at Christ 
Church. W'anstead. England. Miss Una Emery ( M.T.S.. class 1915) to 
Mr. Xorman Harris. 

McLachlix-McPhersox — In Stratford, at the home of the bride's 
parents. September 18th, 1920, Fannie Eisher IMcPherson (R.V.H., 
1918) to Lieut. Leash McLaughlin, of Toronto. 

McRae-Millmax — At the Church of the Transfiguration. X'^ew 
York. October 9th. 1920, Elizabeth McKenzie Millman (T.G.H., 1910) 
to Mr. John Stevens McRae. At home. 84 High Street. Orange. X. T- 

Laurie-Dallimore — At 389 King William Street, by Rev. P. W. 
Philpott. October 16th, 1920, Beatrice Dallimore (graduate of Hamil- 
ton General Hospital) to Gavin S. Laurie, of this city. 

Reid-Braxdox — At Toronto. August 2nd, by Rev. C. \\'. Watch, 
Martha Irene Brandon (T.G.H., 1913) to Mr. G. Waher Reid. of 
Cannington, Ont. 

Richards-Galloway — At First Methodist Church, on Wednesday 
afternoon, October l-4th, 1920, by the pastor. Dr. Hughson, Evelyn 
Grace Galloway (graduate of Hamilton General Hospital), daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Chas. E. Galloway, of 108 George Street, to Albert Edgar 
Richards, son of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Richards, of W'aterdown. 

Robsox-Wasiiixgtox — At Toronto, October 6th. 1920. Gwen- 
doline \'ictoria Washington (T.G.H., 1919) to Dr. Russell Beattie 
Robson, of Walkerville. 

Saxdersox-Wilsox — At St. John, X. B.. September 28th, 1920, 
Miss Gertrude C. Wilson (General Public Hospital, St. John, X. B., 
class 1912) to John M. Sanderson, Prince Albert, Sask. 

Spicer-Mixgav — The marriage is announced of Miss Ada Made- 
line Mingay (\'ancouver General Hospital, 1917), superintendent of 
the Drumheller Municipal Hospital, Drumheller, xA.lta., and daughter of 
Mr. Frederick Mingay, of Edmonton, to Mr. Erie Daniel Spicer, of 
Saskatoon, Sask., son of Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Spicer. Xova Scotia, at 
Lloydminster, Sask., on September 15th. 


Stevens-Nash — At Detroit, Mich., October 6th, 1920, Ada Helen 
Nash (Victoria Hospital, London) to Mr. Alva Porter Stevens. 

Toller-Fitzgerald — On Wednesday. October 6th, 1020, by Rev. 
J. O. ]\Iulvale, Rhea Elizabeth (graduate of Hamilton General Hos- 
pital), eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Fitzgerald, 49 Fairleigh 
Avenue, South, to John Arnot Toller, of Montreal. 

Walsh-Tree— On Wednesday, September 29th, 1920, by the Rev. 
J. Annesley. Delia Maude Tree (graduate of Hamilton General Hos- 
pital) to Hiram Albert Walsh, both of this city. 


The Canadian National Council for Combating Venereal Diseases 
was formed in Alay, 1919. It is a voluntary organization founded as 
part of the Dominion Government scheme for combating venereal dis- 
eases in Canada. Its objects are to assist the Government in its treat- 
ment scheme and, in addition, to do all other things possible which will 
tend to enable the country to rid itself of this scourge. 

Subsidy and Work by the Provinces 

The Dominion Government, through its newly formed Federal De- 
partment of Health, has already begun to take an interest in the venereal 
disease problem. It has planned to launch a campaign against venereal 
diseases, and with this end in view a grant of $200,000 has been made to 
the various provinces to assist them in their work. A similar amount 
will be expended by the provinces, and, through a Department of Venereal 
Diseases in each province, it is expected that facilities for treatment will 
be multiplied. 

His Excellency the Governor-General has consented to act as patron. 
The Council is making progress and development by means of its pro- 
vincial and other committees. 

A Committee on Sex Education has been formed, with Professor 
Peter Sandiford as chairman, and the following members : Dr. O. C. 
J. Withrow, Dr. Margaret Patterson, Dr. Anne Young and Miss Cherry. 

An investigation is to be commenced to determine the amount of 
syphilis in Canada. 

Steps are being taken to interest Canadian Manufacturers' Associa- 
tions and Boards of Trade in the necessity of working out an educa- 
tional plan to be used among employers in various parts of the country. 

Undoubtedly many employees are infected with venereal disease. 
The fact that this results in a marked lessening of efficiency is of dis- 
tinct interest to the manufacturer, and it is believed that a carefully 
worked out scheme for the education of employees will meet with a 
sympathetic reception. 


This would include the designing of posters, educational pay en- 
velope enclosures, etc.. and possibly the use of moving pictures, leaf- 
lets, and lectures in factories. Where possible, arrangements should 
be made for the treatment of infected employees either by plant doctors 
or at clinics to be established by the government. 

Provincial committees are asked to encourage all methods of healthy 
recreation and especially playgrounds and recreation centres. 

The Council is also at work on a plan for obtaining funds to start 
a widespread campaign in which moving- pictures, leaflets, speakers, and 
the press will play a prominent part. 

The Educational Department are arranging for illustrated talks, 
using lantern slides, films and charts, in clubs, church organizations, 
manufacturing plants, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Home and School Associa- 
tions, etc. A Speakers Committee for this purpose is in process of for- 
mation. Suitable literature for free distribution is being prepared and 
a monthly bulletin covering the Dominion activities of the Council will 
be issued. 

The wonderful film drama, "The End of the Road," which has been 
shown during the last two months in Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan, 
Manitoba, and British Columbia, has created and stimulated interest in 
the venereal disease campaign. Much favorable comment has been re- 
ceived from leading ministers, doctors, lawyers, business men, etc., many 
of whom have given short addresses in connection with the screening of 
this film, which has played to capacity houses wherever shown, over 
200,000 people having already seen it. and it is still going strong. 

Free clinics, which are a part of the government scheme for the- 
treatment of venereal diseases, have been established in Toronto, Ham- 
ilton, London, and Windsor, under the jurisdiction of the Provincial 
Board of Health of Ontario, and more will be opened shortly. 

A Florence Nightingale Centennial Calendar is being prepared by 
the Committee of Education of the League of Nursing Education, the 
proceeds to be devoted to a fund for the new National Nursing head- 
quarters in New York. The calendar will have an attractive cover, in 
colors, and will contain a short characteristic quotation from Miss 
Nightingale's writing for every day in the year. 

The cost will be ILOO, and the calendars may be secured in single 
copies or quantities from Miss Albaugh. National Nursing Headquar- 
ters, 15fi P^ifth Avenue. New York. It is hoped that nursing schools 
and nursing organizations in Canada will unite with the American or- 
ganizations in pushing the sale of these calendars, not only as a mem- 
orial to Miss Nightingale, whose centennial we celebrate this year, but 
also as a means of establishing a much-needed centre of nursing in- 
formation and assistance, which is expected to .serve the nurses of tiie 
whole countrv. 



The Infinite Love of God 

The cross is the sign arc! the proof to us of the absokitely infinite 
love of God for us — love which has no limits, and will even suffer for us 
— that we may live, ^^'e know from everyday experience that the suf- 
fering of the innocent for the guilt has great power. It is the love of 
innocent and pure women, for instance, which can alone undo the wrong 
that men do to those whom they seduce. It is the loving care of the 
hospital doctors and nurses that undoes the harm done by the employer 
of sweated labor, who rakes in his shekels at the cost of the health and 
lives of men and women. All through life, men and women are bearing 
each other's burdens, and atoning for each other's sins. And the power 
to bear the burden that another has laid is proportionate to one's own 
innocence and love. .-\nd now into this process comes infinite love and 
infinite innocence, the love ard innocence of the Son of God. Hence we 
know that in the end all the evil of the world will work itself out on Him 
and will be expatiated. 

Even so, our sinner will not be satisfied. He will not be content to 
watch and see his Lord suffering for him. His prayer, if he is really 
repentant, will be. "'Lord, give me something to do. give me some burden 
to bear, that I too may love." This is the instinct of the wholesome man. 
and Jesus Christ does not deny his request. His answer is. "Be a member 
of my body ; share my suffering for the sins of the world ; be crucified 
with me." And the man will be glad that he is accounted worthy to 
suffer in the name of the Lord Jesus. 

So. and only so. is the Christian salvation perfect. It gives not only 
forgiveness and peace, but the self-respect which only comes from work. 
The Church is the body of Christ, and it is only a living body if its 
members suffer with Him for the sins of the world, and in love and 
humility try to help others to bear their burden. — Dox.vld H.vnkev. 

Still one thing remains to furnish the house beautiful, without which 
guests and books and flowers only emphasize the fact that the house is 
not a home. I mean the warm light in the rooms that comes from kind 
eyes, from quick unconscious smiles, from gentleness in tones, from little 
unpremeditated caresses of manner, from habits of forethoughtfulness 
for one another — all that happy illumination which, in the inside of a 
house, corresponds to morning sunlight outside falling on quiet dewy 
fields. — William Channing Gaxnet. 


Technical Books — It there is any 

book on nur?insr 3'ou want, write us 

and we will try to get it for you — 

The Canadian Xur=e. 302 Fifteenth 

A\enue. East Burnabv. B. C. 

Bellevue Hospital offers to Reg- 
istered Nurses institutional positions 
at $72.00 per month and maintenance. 
Apply to General Superintendent of 
Training School. Bellevue Hospital, 
New York City. 




Graduate Nurses wishing to rln pri- 
vate duty will find at Miss Pjan < 
Home for Graduate Nurses (cornect 
ed with one of the largest private 
sanatoriums in the city) a splendid 
opportunity to become acquainted and 
established in their profession. Ad- 
dress 106 West 61st Street. New York 
City. Phone: Co'unibiis 7780 7781. 


ASSISTANT to the Registrars of 
The Central Registry of Graduate 
Nurses. Toronto. Must be graduate 
nurse of good standing. State ex- 
perience. Applications received bj^ 
the Secretary of Central Registry 
Council, 295 Sherbourne Street, Tor- 
onto, up to September 30th, 1920. 


for Kingston General Hospital. State 
qualifications, institutional experience 
and salary desired. 

Apply to the Secretary, General 
Hospital, Kingston, Ontario. 


itself to the placing of competent hospital super- 
intendents, superintendents of nurses' training 
schools, dietitians and nurses in desirable hos- 
pital positions 

We serve both the hospital with nurses and 
nurses with hospital positions. 

Twenty-one years in business, the largest pro- 
fessional service for professional people of its 
kind in the United States. 


Write for free book 




Central Registry of Nurses 

30 N. Michigan Ave. 



GRADUATE NURSES for general 
ward duty. Salary $90 per month 
and maintenance. Apply to the 
Supervising Nurse, Philadelphia Hos- 
pital for Contagious Diseases, Second 
and Luzerne Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

SCHOOL offers a Post-Graduate 
Course of six months in Psychiatric 
Nursing to graduates of recognized 
training schools. This course will in- 
clude the training necessary in nurs- 
ing mental cases in private practice; 
special instruction given in psychia- 
tric social work and in the care of 
nervous and atypical children. 

$40.00 per month and maintenance 
will be allowed, and a certificate will 
be given at the satisfactory comple- 
tion of the course. 

For further information, apply to 
Gen. Supt. of Training Schools, 
Bellevue Hospital, N.Y. City. 

Post Graduate 
Training School for Nurses 

Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat 

2 10 East 64th Street, New York City 

Offers a course in special diseases and oper- 
ating-room training of the eye, ear and throat. 
The course will be both theoretical and prac- 
tical. Instruction will be given by means of 
lectures, demonstration, teaching at the bed- 
side and in the regular performance of duties. 
The new residence for nurses, which has been 
occupied since January, 1918, provides separ- 
ate rooms and excellent facilities for the com- 
fort of the nurses. A registry is maintained 
for our graduates at the Hospital, and a 
limited nurnber of graduates who complete 
the course of instruction may obtain perma- 
nent institutional positions. Graduate nurses 
from recognized schools will be admitted for 
a term of six months. Remuneration, Thirty 
Dollars ($30.00) per month and uniforms. 
Lodging, board and laundry free. For fur- 
ther information, apply to 

210 East 64th Street, New York City 



[eeDle or Disordered Uiqesl 


"Ovaltine" solves the difhciiliy experienced in cases of 
feeble or disordered digestion of ensuring the adminis- 
tration of adequate nutriment without taxing the weak- 
ened digestive functions. It is super-nourishment 
rendered easy of assimilation, and represents the highest 
possible food value in a concentrated form 

•OvaUine" is the very marrow of recuperauve. restorative ^n* energièing 

materials It is a "natural way tome, and is free from drugs or chemicals. 

The dthcious flavour of ••Ovaltine" makes it acceptable to the most 


No cooking— no fuss or irouWIe One or more teaspoonfuls are merely 

added to hot milk, or milk and water 


••Ovaltine" is valuable to the nurse herself and enables her to withstand 
the fatigue and worry o( her arduous profession. 

0/ all Druggists ami Stores. 

Tht makcn will be pictted 
to send lo a qualified 
nurse a suttlclent quantity 
tor trial In any case the 
bat under her charge. 

Matn/tiliÊni tf 


London, Eng. 

Toronto : 21. front St. B*at. 
iMmlm tit».} 



The Neurological 
Institute of New York 

offers a six months' Post Graduate Course 
to Nurses. Thorough practical and theo- 
retical instruction will be given in the con- 
duct of nervous diseases, especially in the 
application of water, heat, light, electricity, 
suggestion and re-education as curatiTe 

$30.00 a month will be paid, together 
with board, lodging and laundry. Applica- 
tion to be made to Miss G. M. Dwyer, 
R.N., Supervisor of Nurses, 149 East 67th 
St., New York City. 


Graduate Nurses' 
Registry and Club 

Phone Seymour 5834 
Day and Night 

Registrar — Mis» Archibald 

779 Bute St., Vancouver, B.C. 


for Children 

There is underclothing, 
night dresses, pyjamas, 
coats, stockings, knitted 
jerseys, knitted suits, 
knitted caps, slippers, 
sandals, gloves, mitts, and, 
for infants, there are 
spencers, bootees, in- 
fantees, overalls, etc. 

A fully illustrated 
catalogue free on 

For Sale at Jaeger Stores and 
Asencie* tbroaghoat Canada. 

DR. JAEGER^"'^;jt^»»""co. limited 

Toronto Montreal Winnipeg 

British "founded 1883" 



Course, two years and six months. Hospital of 325 beds, including 
Medical, Surgical, Obstetrical and Children's Departments. Theoretical and 
practical instruction throughout course given by attending physicians and 
competent nurse instructors, embracing subjects outlined by the State Board 
of Regents. Monthly allowance with maintenance provided. 

For further information, apply to Superintendent, 531 East 86th Street, 

Victorian ©rder of Nurses 

A Post Graduate Course 

Of four months in District and Pul)lic Health Nursing for graduate nurses 
is given at the Training Centres of the Order, namely: Montreal, Toronto, 
Halifax, Winnipeg and Vancouver. 

For full information, apply to the Chief Superintendent, Room 4, Hol- 
brook Chambers, 104 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. 



President — Miss Margaret Murdoch, G.P.H., St. John. 

Vice-Presidents — Miss Ada Burns, St. John; Miss Branscombe, St. Stephens; Miss 
E. Sanson, Fredericton; Miss McMaslers, Moncton; Miss E. Keys, Newcastle. 

Registrar — Miss Annie Why te, Doaktown. 

Treasurer — Miss Mitchell, St. John. 

Recording Secretary — Mrs. Leonard Dunlop, St. John. 

Corresponding Secretary — Miss M. J. Murdie, 35 Carleton Street, St. John; Miss 
M. Fraser, St. John; Mrs. Jno. Vaughan, St. John. 

Regular Monthly Meeting — Second Monday, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss E. F. Trench, Superintendent of Nurses, Women's Hospital; 
President, Mrs. A. Chisholm, 26 Lome Avenue; Vice-President, Miss H. A. I. Wyman, 
305 MacKay Street; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss J. E. Smithers, Women's Hospital. 

Conveners of Committees — Finance, Miss E. F. French; Social, Miss H. A. T. 
Wyman; Sick Visiting, Miss Seguin. 

Representative to the "Canadian Nurse" — Miss H. A. T. Wyman. 

Regular Monthly Meeting — Third Tuesday, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss J. Giflfen, Lady Supt., C. M. H.; President, Miss M. Wight, 
C. M. H.; Vice-President, Miss C. MacDonald; Treasurer, Mrs. Walcott, 47 Notre 
Dame St., Lachine; Secretary, Miss E. G. Alexander, C. M. A. 

Board of Directors — Miss Stafford, Miss M. Armour. 

"Canadian Nurse" Representative — Miss E. Morris. 

Regular meeting, 1st Friday of every second month, from May to June, 4 p.* m. 



President, Miss Goodhue; First Vice-President, Miss Amelia Campbell; Second 
Vice-President, Miss Prescott; Recording Secretary, Mrs. E. Roberts, 438 Mt. Stephen 
Avenue, Westmount; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Prescott, Royal Victoria Hospital, 
Montreal; Assistant Corresponding Secretaries, Misses Buck and Karn, R.V.H.; 
Treasurer, Miss M. Etter, R.V.H.; "Canadian Nurse" Representative, Miss L. O'Reilly, 

Sick Visiting Committee — Mrs. M. J. Bremner (Convener), 39 Linton Apartments, 
Sherbrook Street West; Mrs. Paul Johnston, 17 Hope Avenue: Mrs. Walter Stewart, 
449 Sherbrooke Street West; Miss Whelan, 308 Drummond Street; Miss Gall, 100 
Fort Street; Miss Eaton, 464 Union Avenue. 

Regular monthly meeting second Wednesday, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss J. Craig; President, Miss Ada Wilkinson; First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mrs. H. F. McLean; Second Vice-President, Miss S. G. Maw; Treasurer, Miss J. 
Craig, Western Hospital, Montreal, Que.; Secretary, Miss B. A. Dyer, Western Hos- 
pital, Montreal, Que. 

Convener of Finance Committee — Mrs. Wm. Daw. 

Convener of Programme Committee — Miss Phillis Dean. 

Convener of Membership and Visiting Committee — Miss Edna Payne. 

Convener of General Nursing Committee — Miss B. A. Birch. 

Representative to "Canadian Nurse" — Miss E. Wright. 



Hon. President, Mrs. H. Pollock, Superintendent of Nurses' Homeopathic Hos- 
pital; President, Miss E. Routhier, 4 Oldfield Avenue; Vice-President, Miss J. Ryan, 
306 Prince Arthur Street, West; Secretary, Miss D. W. Miller Tieasurer, Miss M. J. 
Boa, Homeopathic Hospital. 

Conveners of Committees— Finance, D. W. Miller; Sick Visiting, Misses Buchanan 
and Garrick. 

Representative to the "Canadian Nurse" — Miss M. Richards, Mansfield Street. 

Regular monthly meeting first Thursday at 8 p.m. 



No. 400 

The authorized Gov- 
ernment Uniform dur- 
ing the war. 

Of superior quality 
Dixie Cloth ; women's 
and misses' sizes. 

The Standard of Quality! 

Among Hospital officials ! Among particular nurses everywhere — 
Dix-Make Uniforms are the recognized standard! 

Through twenty years of sincere endeavor, of ahvays striving to 
develop better styles and more careful tailoring, the nursing profes- 
sion has ever looked to us for authentic, carefully made uniforms. 
The responsibility this achievement involves is reflected in the service- 
giving qualities each Dix-Make Uniform so satisfactorily renders. 

Sold by leading department stores nearly everywhere. Write us for 
catalogue and list of dealers. 

Henry A. Dix & Sons Company 



T H t. CAN A Dl AN N U Rtit 699 


Hon. President, Miss Livingston; President, Miss E. Brown; First Vice-President, 
Miss Young; Second Vice-President, Miss Cowen; Recording Secretary, Miss Davies, 
M.G.H.; Corresponding Secretary, Miss MacDougall, 60 Sherbrooke Street, West; 
Treasurer, Miss Colley, 26 Melville Avenue; Treasurer Sick Benefit Fund, Miss Dunlop. 

Executive Committee — Miss F. M. Shaw, Miss L. M. McDermot, Miss Barrett, 
Miss Tedford, Miss Watling. 

Refreshment Committee — Miss Ross. 

Sick Visiting Committee — Miss J. Brown, Miss L. White, Miss G. Vipond, Miss 
A. E. Little, Miss Gwen Nicholls. 

Representative to "Canadian Nurse" — Miss Strumm. 

Local Council of Women — Miss Gass, Miss Briggs. Proxies: Mrs. Lamb, Miss 

Regular Meeting — Second Friday. 


Hon. President, Miss Catton; Hon. President, Mrs. Warren Lyman; President, 
Miss A. McNiece; Vice-President, Miss Jessie Waddell; Secretary, Miss E. McGibbon; 
Treasurer, Miss Norma Dawson. 

Board of Directors — Mrs. Sutherland, Miss L. Belford, Miss M. Slinn. 


President, Miss Ella Jamieson, 5 Summerhill Gardens, Toronto; First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Miss M. Catton, Ottawa, Ont.; Second Vice-President, Mrs. A. C. Joseph, Lon- 
don, Ont.; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Mary Irene Foy, 163 Concord Avenue, Toronto. 

Directors — Miss E. MacP. Dickson, Weston; Miss Hannah, Hamilton; Mrs. J. B. 
Bilger, Kitchener; Miss I. McElroy, Ottawa; Miss Whiting, Cornwall; Miss A. H. 
Nash, London; Miss B. Ellis, Toronto; Miss A. Davidson, Peterboro; Miss Cook, 
Toronto; Miss M. McLean, Ottawa; Miss H. Lovick, Kingston; Miss E. H. Dyke, 
Toronto; Miss C. Fairlie, Kingston; Miss M. Brennan, Hamilton; Miss M. Hall, Brant- 
ford; Miss K. Mathieson, Toronto; Miss A. Forgie, Guelph. 



Chairman, Mrs. S. Crawford, 124 Division Street; Vice-Chairman, Miss Pearl 
Martin, 135 Nelson Street; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Gertrude Murdock. Kingston 
General Hospital; Assistant Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. F. Robinson, 302 Queen Street; 
Corresponding Secretary, Miss H. Lovick. 1.54 University Avenue. 

Regular Meeting — First Tuesday of everv second month. 


President, Miss M. C. Hall; Vice-President, Miss M. W. McCulloch; Secretary, 
Miss G. Barrick; Treasurer, Miss D. Taylor. 

"Canadian Nurse" Representative — Miss C. P. Robinson. 
Regular Meeting — First Tuesday of each month, 4 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss C. Boskill; President, Miss Pearl Martin, 135 Nelson Street, 
Kingston, Ont.; First Vice-President, Mrs. George Nichol; Second Vice-President, 
Miss Baker; Secretary, Miss C. Milton, 404 Brock Street, Kingston; Assistant Secre- 
tary, Mrs. S. Smith; Treasurer, Miss Florence Hiscock, 122 Collingwood Street, 

"Canadian Nurse" Representative— Miss Eva Dalgleish, 30 Garrett Street, 



President, Miss Hazel Maclnnis; Vice-President, Miss Marjorie Batclielor; Sec- 
retary-Treasurer, Miss Helen McCord, 14 Victor Ave., Toronto, telephone, Gerrard. 
1210. Representatives to the Central Register, Misses Helen Carruthers and Mary 


President, Miss E. MacP. Dickson; First Vice-President, Miss Hannant; Second 
Vice-President, Miss Lougheed; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Vera Hughes Wallace, 
39 Boswell Ave., Toronto (telephone, Hillcrest 1640 W); Recording Secretary, Miss Beal; 
Treasurers, Misses Chisholm and Mann; Directors, Mrs. Dresis and Misses Crosby and 
Lambie; Registry Representatives, Misses Gaskell and Fife; Representative "Canadian 
Nurse," Mrs. V. H. Aubin. 


Honoary President, Mrs. A. A. Jackson, 338 Symington Avenue, Toronto; Presi- 
dent, Miss Esther M. Cook, Toronto Hospital for Incurables; Vice-President, .Miss Eva 
L.eQueyer; Secretary-1 reasurer, Miss Alice Lendrum, Hamilton; Press Representative, 
Miss J. McLean. 281 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. 

Regular Meeting — Third Monday, at 3 p.m. 


President, Miss E. Dyke, Department of Public Health, City Hall, Toronto; Vice- 
President, Miss J. Gunn, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto; Secretary, Miss H. 
Locke, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto; Treasurer, Miss MacCallum, 108 Avenue 
Road, Toronto. 

Directors — Miss Kinder, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto: Miss McAfee, the 
Western Hospital, Toronto; Miss Wardell, 295 Sherbourne Street, Toronto; Mrs. Bow- 
man, Women's College Hospital, Toronto; Miss Phillips, the Wellesley Hospital, 
Toronto; Miss E. Campbell, the Victorian Order of Nurses, Toronto; Miss Didsbury, 
44 Charles Street, East, Toronto; Miss Forbes, 224 Wright Avenue, Toronto. 


Hon. President — Rev. Mother Alberta; President, Miss Mary Irene Foy, 163 
Concord Avenue: First Vice-President, Miss A. Dolan; Second Vice-President, Mis» 
K. Kennedy; Third Vice-President, Miss Helen G. O'Connor; Corresponding Secre- 
tary. Mrs. J. W. Chipperfield, 127 Spruce Hill Road; Recording Secretary. Miss C. 
McBride: Treasurer, Miss N. Gartlan. 

Board of Directors — Hon. Director, Sr. M. Mellany. 

Directors — Mrs. W. P. O'Brien, Miss Edith Atmore, Miss Mabel Power. 

Representatives on Central Registry Committee — Miss J. O'Connor. 

Secretary-Treasurer Sick Benefit — Miss A. Hurley. 

Press Representative — Miss J. Gibson. 

Regular Meeting — Second Monday of each month. 


President, Miss Grindlay; First Vice-President, Miss Jamieson; Second Vice- 
President, Mrs. Menzies; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Meiklejohn, 18 Willcox Street. 
Toronto; Treasurer, Mrs. Canniflf; Recording Secretary, Miss Hunter. 

Sick Visiting — Mrs. Boyer. 

Representative "Canadian Nurse" Magazine — Miss Haynes, Central Registry. 



Hon. President, Miss Ellis; President, Mrs. Gilroy, 404 Spadina Avenue, Toronto; 
First Vice-President, Miss Anderson; Second Vice-President, Miss Boggs; Treasurer, 
Miss Shortreed, 'J'oronto Western Hospital; Recording Secretary, Miss Annan; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Miss Ewart, 22 Henderson Avenue, Toronto; Representative to 
Canadian Xurse (articles), Miss Jessie Cooper, 497-a Bloor Street, Toronto; Subscrip- 
tions, Miss Margaret Campbell, 91 Beatrice Street, Toronto. 

Representatives Central Registry — Miss Cooney, Miss Kneeshaw, Miss B Campbell. 

Visiting Committee — Mrs. Yorke, Mrs. MacConnell. 

Programme Committee — Miss S. Jackson, Convener. 

Knitting Committee — Miss Hornsby, Convener, 691 Spadina Avenue. 

Directors — Mrs. MacConnell, Mrs. Yorke, Mrs. Valentine, Mrs. Weehaufer. 

Treasurer Alumnae War Fund — Mrs. Valentine, 55 Lakeview Avenue, Toronto. 

The Association meets First Friday each alternate month. 



Honorary President, Mrs. H. M. F. Bowman, R. N.; President, Mrs. Alex. 
Buchanan; Vice-President, Miss Sarah Glenn; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Lavina 
Ament; Recording Secretary, Miss Miriam Spademan; Treasurer, Miss Kathleen 
Grattan; Executive Committee, Miss Sanftenburg and Miss Neame, with above officers. 


Hon. President, Miss Rowan, Superintendent of Nurses, Grace Hospital; Presi- 
dent, Miss F. Emory; First Vice-President, Miss M. E. Henderson; Second Vice- 
President, Miss F. C. Whellans; Treasurer, Mrs. J. M. Aitken, 409 West Marion 
Street; .Corresponding Secretary, Miss Margaret MacKinnon, 375 Huron Street; Re- 
cording Secretary, Miss M. Greer. 

Representative to the "Canadian Nurse" — Miss M. E. Henderson, 149 Howland 

Conveners of Committees — Social, Miss McKeown; Press Publication, Miss 
Pearen; Sick, Miss Morin. 

Representative to Central Registry — Misses Edge and Cunningham. 

Board of Directors — Misses Rowan, Devellin, Pearen, Segsworth, Elsie Reid and 

Regular Monthly Meeting — Second Tuesday, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss E. MacP. Dickson; President, Miss Jean Bryden, 550 Ger- 
rard Street, East. Toronto; Vice-President, Miss U. Leroux; Secretary, Miss Mabel 
Avery, Toronto Free Hospital, Weston; Treasurer, Miss Cora Beckwith, Toronto 
Free Hospital, Weston. 

Regular Meetings — Second Friday of each alternate month. 


Hon. President, Miss E. MacLean, Toronto Orthopedic Hospital; President, Mrs. 
A. W. McClennan, 436 Palmerston Boulevard, Toronto; Vice-President, Mrs. H. V. 
Maynard; Secretarj^-Treasurer and Press Representative, Mrs. W. J. Smithers, 71 
Grenville Street, Toronto. 

Representatives to Central Registry — Mrs. H. J. Knight and Miss Marjory Bed- 

Regular Meeting — Fourth Thursday of each alternate month at 3 p.m. 




Hon. President, Sister Beatrice, Superintendent; President, Miss Burnett; Vice- 
President, Miss F. M. Elliott; Secretary, Miss Price; Treasurer, Miss Haslett. 
Press Representative — Aliss Hutchins. 
Representatives to Central Registry — Miss Bruce and Miss Hutchins. 



Hon. President, Mother M. Thecla; Hon. Director, Sister ]\L Dosethcu<: Presi- 
'lent. ATiss M. O'SuUivan: Vice-President, Miss R. Henry: Secretary. Miss U. O'Sul- 
livan: Treasurer, Miss A. Boyd. 

Officers for Sick Benefit Fund: President. Miss M. Burke: Vice-President. Mrs. 
Hanlon: Secretary. Mi = s B. Bracy; Treasurer, Miss I. Forwell; Directors, Misses 
Î.IcQuillan. Burns. Spitzig. Holmes. 

Regular Meeting— First Friday of each month. 



Chairman, Miss Edith Taylor, Strathcona Apmts., Sherman Avenue, South: Treas- 
urer, Miss A. McGinnity, 807 King Street, East: Secretary, Miss M. Alice Beckett, 
R.N., "Sunnyside," S. Garth Street; First Vice-President, Miss Anne Cameron, 78 
Ontario Avenue; Second Vice-President, Miss J. Elliot, Brennon Apmt., Main Street, 

Committee — Miss Ainslie, Dominion Apmts.; Miss A. Egan, 807 King Street, East; 
Miss Barclay, 113 Sanford Avenue, South; Miss Ashbaugh, 447 King Street, East; Miss 
Roadhouse, 522 King Street, East. 

Meetings — Fourth Wednesday, 8 p.m., of every second month, beginning in 
January, but omitting July. 



Hon. President. Mother M. St. Basil: Hon. Director. Sister M. Gerard; Presi- 
dent, Miss G. Boyes. 17 East Avenue, South; Vice-President. Miss M. Aîaloney; 
Recording Secretary', ^îiss E. Dermody, 157 Catharine Street; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Miss E. McClarty, 92 Hunter Street, West; Treasurer. Miss A. Brohman, 92 
Hunter Street, West. 

"The Canadian Nurse" Representative — Miss M. Nally, 213 Cannon Street, East. 

Representative on Central Registry — Miss M. Grant. 

Entertainment Committee — Misses L. Furey, M. McClarty and M. La HoflF. 

Executive Committee — Misses H. Fagan, É. Cahill, H. Carroll, N. Finn and F. 

Sick Visiting Committee — Misses H. Carroll and F. Clarke. 

Regular Meeting — First Tuesday, 4 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss Fairley, H.G.H.: President. Mrs. G. H. O'Brien. 170 Cath- 
arine Street. North; Vice-President, Miss B. Aitken, 244 Main Street, East: Secretary, 
Miss P.arclay, W^ Sanford .-Vvenue, South; Treasurer, Miss Pegg, 120 East Ave., South; 
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Lovk^e, 336 Cannon Street; Canadian Nurse Correspon- 
dent, Miss Burnett, 131 Stinson Street. 

Executive Committee — Miss M. Aitken, Miss O. Beatty. Miss Sadler, Miss M. E. 
Dunlop, Miss Newbigging. 

Representatives to National Council of Women — Miss E. Taylor, Miss B. Aitken, 
Mrs. Newson. 

Sick Committee — Miss A. P. Kerr, Miss M. E. Dunlop. Mrs. Reynolds. Miss 

Representatives to Central Registry — Miss Burnett, Mrs. Reynolds. Miss Road- 
house, Miss A. P. Kerr. 



Hon. President, Miss M. Forde, R.N., Superintendent of the General Hospital; 
President, Mrs. R. Millard, 154 William Street; Vice-President, Miss C. Good, City; 
Secretary, Miss C. P. Robinson, General Hospital; Assistant Secretary, Miss Edith 
Jones, 255 Greenwich Street; Treasurer, Miss G. Leslie, 6 Peel Street. 

"Canadian Nurse" Representative — Miss M. C. Hall, General Hospital. 

Regular Meeting on the first Tuesday of every month, at 3.30 p.m., in the Nurses' 

(Affiliated Members of G. N. A. of Ontario) 

Hon. President, Miss Green, Superintendent; President, Mrs. C. K. Graham, 642 
Shaw Street, Toronto; Hon. Vice-President, Mrs. Gordon Jones. Pueblo, Colorado; 
Vice-President, Miss H. O. Stacey, Hamilton, Montana; Acting Vice-President, Mrs. 
Leavens. 170 George Street, Belleville, Ont.; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss E. G. Green, 
71 Everett Street, Belleville, Ont. 

Advisory Board — Miss Morrison, Miss Martin, Mrs. Bush, Mrs. Fitzgerald, Miss 

Entertainment Committee — Mrs. Worrell, Mrs. Leavens, Miss Morrison, Mrs. 

Meetings — First Tuesday in each month. 


President, Miss Golay, 142 Ellsworth Avenue; Vice-President, Miss McNeill, 82 
Gloucester Street; Secretary, Miss Alice Kirk, Riverdale Hospital; Treasurer, Miss 
Frances Schoales, 3 Withrow Avenue. Executive Committee, Misses Jessie Xaives 
and Elizabeth Miller; Conveners of Committees, Miss Love, Sick and Visiting; Miss 
Honey, Programme. 

Representatives on Central Registry— Misses Goloy and Maude Thompson. 

Representative on "Canadian Nurse"— Norme V. Schoales. 

Regular Meeting — First Thursday every second month, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss Uren. G. and M. Hospital, St. Catharines. Ont.; President, 
Mrs. Parnell, 124 Lake Street, St. Catharines; First Vice-President. Miss Annie Moyer. 
Queenston Street; Second Vice-President, Mrs. McGowan, 2 Lyman Street; Secretary. 
Miss Caroline Freel, G. and M. Hospital; Treasurer, Mrs. W. Durham, R. R. No. 4, St. 

"Canadian Nurse" Representative — Miss A. J. Gransmore, 2 Lyman Street. 

Programme Committee — Miss Merle McCormack, Miss Annie Moyer, Miss Vera 

Regular Monthly Meeting — Last Tuesday, 2.30 p.m. 


President, Miss Anabell Nicol, 91 Kains Street; Vice-President, Miss Ruth 
Mackey, 91 Kains Street; Recording and Corresponding Secretary, Miss Pearl Dean, 
5 Naama Street; Treasurer, Miss Sadie Coulthard, 20 Hughes Street. 

Executive Committee — Misses Cook, Malcolm, Bennett, Crane and Mills. 

Representative to "Canadian Nurse" — Miss Myrtle Bennett, 71 Hincks Street. 

Regular Meeting — Second Wednesday, 8 p.m. 


Hon. President, Miss Frances Sharpe; President, Miss M. H. Mackay, R.N.; Vice- 
President, Mrs. J. B. Coleridge; Recording Secretary, Miss Annie Hill; Assistant Sec- 
retarj'. Miss Annie McLean; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Agnes Weston; Treasurer, 
Miss Evelyn Peers; Assistant Treasurer, Miss Vida Burns. 

Representatives to NationaT Council of Women — Miss M. H. Mackay, R.N., Miss 
W. Huggins, Miss Annie Hill. 

Regular Alonthly Meeting — Second Monday, 8 p.m. 


Quotations from Doctors: No. 7 

"The majority of cases of pneumonia, 
in my experience of thirty years medical 
practice, have had more or less pleuritic 

**1 presume this is the experience of 
my colleagues. 

'^^"The most grateful application that 
can be made to a patient suffering with 
pneumonia is a warm 

poultice under a moderately firm binder 
or jacket. Its action is, first through the 
superficial vessels, and then more slowly 
but just as efficiently on the deeper 
congested parts." 

J. A. H., M.D. 


The Denver Chemical Manufacturing Company 




Hon. President, Miss M. Stanley, Superintendent of Nurses, Victoria Hospital; 
President, Miss D. Hutchison, Victoria Hospital; First Vice-President, Miss Agnes 
Malloch, 784 Colborne Street: Second Vice-President, Miss Ina Bice, Victoria Hos- 
pital; Secretary, Miss Beatrice Smith, 95 High Street; Treasurer, Mrs. Walter Cummins, 
95 High Street. 

"Canadian Nurse" Representative — Mrs. A. C. Joseph, 449 Oxford Street. 

Advisory Committee — Misses Mortimer, Cockburn and Barons. 

Programme Committee — Mrs. Allison, Misses Shannon and Luckham. 

Regular Monthly Meeting — First Tuesday, 8 p.m. 



President, Mrs. Smithers, Pensax Court; Vice-President, Miss Teeter, 496 Dover- 
court Road (P. 6554); Corresponding Secretary, Miss Butchart, Room 308, City Hall 
(M. 16: C. 4684); Recording Secretary, Miss Ferriman, 74 Herbert Avenue (B. 3152); 
Treasurer, Miss Haslett, 48 Howland Avenue (C. 3617); Convener and Committee, 
Miss Batchelor, 191 Westminster Avenue (P. 1019); Press and Publication, Mi?s 
Goodman, 11 Maple (M. 1539); Representative. Miss Kinder, Hospital Sick Children; 
Local Council, Mrs. Blakely, 233 Delaware Avenue. 

Social and Programme — Miss Meader, 258 St. Clarens; Miss Moore, Miss Gas- 
trell (K. 1709-J). 

Legislation Representative — From Women's College Hospital, Mrs. Blarnent, 
26 Alhambra Avenue (J. 8291). 


Hon. President, Rev. Sister Arcand, St. Boniface Hospital; President, Mrs. Mc- 
Leod, 40 Westgate; First Vice-President, Miss A. C. Starr, 7?3 Wolseley Avenue; 
Second Vice-President, Mrs. Chalmers, 852 McDermot Avenue; Secretary, Miss Mc- 
Wannacott, 486 Clifton Avenue; Treasurer, Miss Sykes, 753 Wolseley Avenue. 

Convener of Social Committee — Miss Stella Gordon, 251 Stradbrooke Avenue. 

Convener of Sick Visiting Committee — Miss Mary Dillion, 852 McDermott Ave. 

Regular Monthly Meeting — Second Wednesday, 8 p.m. 


President, Miss Elizabeth Carruthers, 535 McMillan Avenue; First Vice-President, 
Miss Ethel Gilroy, 674 Arlington; Corresponding Secretary, Louise Spratt, 371 College 
Avenue; Recording Secretary, Miss M. Martin. King George Hospital, Winnipeg; 
Treasurer, Miss Florence Robertson, 753 Wolsley Avenue. 


Hon. President, Miss Birtles; President, Mrs. S. J. Pierce. 1608 Louise Avenue, 
Brandon; Vice-President, Miss Hulbert; Secretary, Miss Margaret Gemmell, 346 
Twelfth Street, Brandon. 

Convener of Social Committee — Mrs. Lawson Ferrier, 525 Sixteenth street. 

Convener of Registration Committee — Miss C. MacLeod. 

Press Representative — Miss M. Finlayson. 

Incorporated March, 1917 

Council — President, Miss Jean Urquhart, Regina, Sask ; Vice-President, Sister 
Allaire, Regina, Sask. 

Councillors — Mi«s Jean Browne, Regina, Sask.; Miss Grainger Campbell. Saska- 
toon, Sask.; Dr. Charlton, Regina, Sask.; Dr. Argue, Grenfell, Sask.; Secretary and 
Registrar, Miss Jean Wilson, General Hospital, Moose Jaw, Sask. 



Incorporated April 19, 1916 

President. Miss Victoria I. Winslow, R.N., Superintendent of Nurses, General 
fîospital, Medicine Hat: First Vice-President, Miss Christine Smith. R.N., Superin- 
tendent of Provincial Public Health Nurses, Edmonton; Second Vice-President, Miss 
I. ^î. Edy, R.N.. Superintendent of Nurses, General Hospital. Calgary; Secretary- 
Treasurer and Registrar, Miss Eleanor McPhedran, R.N. , Col. Belcher Military Hos- 
pital, Eighth Avenue, West, Calgary. 

Councillors — Mrs. Manson, R.N., Miss McMillan, R.N., Miss E. Rutherford, R.N 


President, Mrs. Manson; First Vice-President, Miss Macmillan; Second Vice- 
President, Miss Gould; Treasurer, Miss McGillivray; Secretary, Miss Irving, R. A. 

Regular Monthly Meeting — Third Wednesday, 3.30 p. m. 



President, Miss Jessie MacKenzie; First Vice-President, Mrs. M. E. Johnston; 

Second Vice-President, ; Secretary, Miss E. G. Breeze, 125 Vancouver Block, 

Vancouver, B.C.; Registrar, Miss Helen Randal, 125 Vancouver Block, Vancouver, B.C. 

Councillors — Misses Tolmie, Boultbee, Stott, McAllister, Johns and Judge. 

Obstetric Nursinq 

npHE CHICAGO LTING-IN HOSPITAL offert a four-months' post-graduate 
^ courte in obttetric nuriinc to ^raduatet of accredited training schools connected 
with general hospitali, giring not lest than two years' training. 

The courte compritea practical and didactic work in the hospital and practical 
work in the Out Department connected with it. On the satisfactory completion of 
the service a certificate it given the nurte. 

Board, room and laundry are furnithed and an allowance of $io.oo per month to 
cover incidental ezpente. 

Affiliationt with accredited Training Schoolt are desired, as follows: 

A four-months' courte to be given to pupils of accredited training schools asso- 
ciated with general hospitals. 

Only pupilt who have completed their surgical training can be accepted. 

Pupil nursea receive board, room and laundry and an allowance of $5.00 per 


Chicago Lyîng*în Hospital and Dispensary 

426 East 51st Street. emeHGO 



One of the Largest Merchant Fleets in the World 

THE magnificent 
fleet of "tankers" 
of the Standard Oil Co. 
(New Jersey) is able to 
bring the finest raw 
materials for use in the 
manufacture of Nujol 
from all corners of the 

of every viscosity from a 
water-like fluid to a jelly. 

The viscosity of Nujol 
was determined after ex- 
haustive research and 
clinical test, and is in 
strict accord with the 
opinions of leading med- 
ical authorities. 

The expert chemists of Sample and literature 
the Nujol Laboratories based on the writings of 
of the Standard Oil Co. Sir Arbuthnot Lane and 

(New Jersey) 
have been able to 
produce abso- 
lutely pure Li- 
quid Petrolatum 

other eminent 
authorities will 
be sent gratis. 
Mail coupon be- 

Nujol Laboratories, Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey), 44 Beaver Street, Room 778, New York. 
Please send booklets marked, 

G "ON A CASE" (Especially prepared for the Nurse) 
The following booklets may also be of interest to the Nurse : 
n "Thirty Feet of Danger" t ^ "Th<= Days That Go Before 

(Constipation — auto-intoxicauoii in adults) (Constipation in pregnancy and nursmg period) 
n "As the Twig is Bent" -\ "As the Shadows Lengthen" D "Wages of Neglect 

(Constipation in children) (Constipation in old age) (Constipation as a cause of piles) 

LJ Also Sample 
Name Address 



The widespread employment of the 
preparation in the treatment of 
anomalies of the menstrual function 
rests on the unqualified indorsement 
of physiciems whose superior knowl- 
edge of the relative value of agents 
of this class stands unimpeached. 

By virtue of its impressive analgesic and 
antispaismodic action on the female reproduc- 
tive system and its property of promoting 
functional activity of the uterus and its ap- 
pendages, Ergoapiol (Smith) is of extraordin- 
ary service in the treatment of 

amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea 
Menorrhagia, metrorrhagia 




ERGOAPIOL (Smith) is supplied only in packages containing 
twenty capsules. DOSE : One to two capsules three or four 
times a day. •> ' ' Samples and literature sent on request. 

MARTIN H. SMITH COMPANY, New York, N. Y., U. 5. A. 

Nurses know it's 
a dependable aid- 
to the rapid recovery of convalescents — young and old 


The Food Tonic 

''j'e under the same formtila since 1873. The use o£ 
BOVININE augments trerve and muscular energy. It rap- 
Ldly rebuilds by suppiyiiig- the impoverished system with the 
éléments demanded BOVININE is not a bee£ extract — it's 
a positive blood maker and body builder. 

Recommended by physicians, surgeons 
and nurses for almost 50 years 

Literature and samples to nurses 


An Aid in Convalescence 

*|JORLICK'S " is Glean, saft and de- 
ll pendable. Its quality assures 
service and results. Fats, protelds, 
carbohydrates and salts are pro- 
perly proportioned and In easily as- 
similated form to prog:ressively 
build up the patient. 


Horlick's Malted Milk Co. 

Imoina, Wis. Slouch, Bucks, En^. Montrsal, Can 






^^ffUCKS MALTED ^Al»-^ CO.. 


Hwo Important 

Unlosable Washer 

(Cannot Drop Off) 

Pleat AH Around 

(Cfv«s Ur^ Cdpacit^) 

- J pLL "Meinecke" Ice Bags are fitted with our 
/^JL^ patented Unlosable Washer and have a pleat 
all the way round to give extra capacity. 
These Ice Bags are made of our well known Maroon 
Rubber which will not get hard, soît, crack or peel 
off, and they can be depended upon to give the 
maximum Ice Bag service, either from the viewpoint 
of durability or utility. 

P^ Progress Oblonrg Ice Bag. Size 7x11 . Made of Cloth-Inserted 

Maroon Rubber. The best all-around ice Cap made. 

g Perfection Ice Bags. Made in three sizes, namely, small, 5x9, 

medium, 6x1 I . large, 7x 1 3 inches. The upper part is made of 
Cloth- Inserted Maroon Rubber, and the lower part of all 
Rubber Stock. The box-like pleats permit this Bag to assume 
a square shape when filled. 

Q Army and Navy Combination Ice Bags and Helmets. Made 

in two sizes, namely, large size, (for adults) 12Î4 inches in 
diameter, small size. 10 inches in diameter. Made of Cloth- 
Inserted Maroon Rubber. This is an unusually good Ice Bag 
for use in fever cases, as the ice can be centered over the base 
of the brain. Loops are provided for tying on, in case the 
patient is delirious. This Ice Cap can be flattened out to form 
a large round Ice Bag, for use when a large area is desired to 
be covered, especially over the chest or abdomen. 

[) Progress Throat Ice Bags. Made of Cloth-Inserted Maroon 

Rubber in two sizes, namely, small size, 10 inches, large size, 
12 inches. For application to the throat or head. 

£ Face and Ear Bags. Made in one size only, of all Rubber 

Stock, for use on the forehead, back of the ear or back of neck 
and over the head. This Bag can be used for either Ice or Hot 
Water. For tying on purposes this Bag is provided witli a 
linen bandage which fits over the Cap 

MEINECKE &'0a Aéu/ York. 

-■ "MEINECKt'vy-w.tM''»- rOR ICE 

FACE «.EAR V^,> ...OR ., 
bag' ~ ! ■ HOTWATEf 

E— Face and Ear Bag.